Very few Americans know drinking alcohol increases cancer risk, study finds

Source: Author: Linda Carroll Despite conclusive research showing that all alcoholic beverages, including wine, increase the risk of many types of cancer, a survey of nearly 4,000 U.S. adults found that less than a third knew that alcohol consumption was a risk factor for cancer. Even fewer, just over 20%, realized that drinking wine could raise the risk of cancer, according to the report published Thursday in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. The new findings show that “most Americans don’t know that alcohol is a leading modifiable risk factor for cancer,” Andrew Seidenberg, Ph.D., who was a cancer prevention fellow at the National Cancer Institute when the research was conducted, tells “All alcoholic beverages increase cancer risk, but there are variations in awareness by the beverage type, with wine being the lowest. In fact, 10% of U.S. adults incorrectly believe that wine decreases cancer risk.” Unfortunately, the link hasn’t gotten much attention in the media, says Seidenberg, who is now research director at Truth Initiative, a nonprofit public health organization. A 2021 study found that alcohol consumption accounted for 75,199 cancer cases and 18,947 cancer deaths annually in the U.S. Other research has linked alcohol consumption to several types of cancer, including cancers of the breast, mouth and colon. Most Americans drink, and Seidenberg wonders if some would choose to cut back if they understood the link with cancer. In 2019, 54.9% (59.1% of men, 51% of women) reported drinking in the past month, with 25.8% (29.7% of [...]

2022-12-03T08:04:58-07:00December, 2022|Oral Cancer News|

Stanley Tucci was “like a ghost in [his] own house” when he had cancer

Source: Author: staff The 62-year-old actor - who has three adult children with late first wife Kathryn Spath and Matteo, seven, and Emilia, four, with wife Felicity Blunt - was diagnosed with tongue cancer in 2017 and he admitted he reached a period where he "didn't see the point of living" if he would no longer be able to enjoy the pleasure of enjoying a meal with his loved ones again He said: "I was a cranky patient. Because I was miserable. I thought it was never going to go away. And I was like, how did this happen... "There were times when I thought I was never going to be able to eat with my family again. The things I love to do are eat and taste and drink. And I love to do them with the people I love. "If I can't do that, then I really don't see the point of living. "I spent months and months up in my room, listening to everybody. Like a ghost in my own house. People coming and going. And I would go down and I would cook, but I couldn't eat it - but I'd want to cook. "Sometimes it almost made me ill to do it, but I wanted to do it. It was pretty f****** awful." The 'Supernova' star has since gone into remission but there are still some foods and drinks he can't enjoy the way he used to. He told You magazine: "Since I wrote [...]

2022-11-30T21:38:56-07:00November, 2022|Oral Cancer News|

Treatment side effects to head and neck cancer patients reduced using immunotherapy

Source: Authors: Shan Lam, Nathan Amery Head and neck cancer patients suffer many side effects from conventional treatments, research shows such side effects can be reduced by using the recently developed “immunotherapy” treatment. Hong Kong Cancer Information Charity Foundation (CICF) announced the results of a questionnaire survey on “head and neck cancers” on Nov. 15. It was found that over 80 percent of the respondents experienced eating difficulties, including taste changes, dry mouth, difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) and oral ulcers; Respondents who received conventional treatment reported an average of 8.5 treatment side effects, and 43 percent had 10 or more side effects. CICF pointed out that the emergence of “immunotherapy” in recent years has reduced the side effects of conventional treatments and urged the government to include related treatments in funding projects. According to the CICF, head and neck cancers refer to cancer lesions in the head and neck, which can be divided into two types: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. They are named after the original organs, such as oral cancer, hypopharyngeal cancer, and throat cancer. Over the past ten years, the number of new cases of head and neck cancers in Hong Kong has continued to rise, and the average number of deaths is 210 each year, accounting for 30 percent of those new cases. In the middle of 2022, the research team interviewed 97 head and neck cancer patients directly or through their caregivers in the form of an online questionnaire. The purpose was [...]

2022-11-30T21:31:35-07:00November, 2022|Oral Cancer News|

The role of bacteria in cancer growth

Source: Author: Dr. Priyom Bose, Ph.D., reviewed by Aimee Molineux Tumor-associated microbiota is an important component of the tumor microenvironment (TME) across 33 types of human cancer. However, little evidence is available regarding the spatial distribution and localization of these microbes in tumor cells. Addressing this gap in research, a recent Nature journal study evaluated spatial, cellular, and molecular host-microbe interactions in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, scientists mapped host–bacterial cellular, spatial, and molecular interactions within the TME using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and in situ spatial-profiling technologies. Background Typically, cancer patients' tumors comprise malignant cells surrounded by a compound network of non-malignant cells. These cells might exhibit pro- or anti-tumorigenic effects based on their abundance and type. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments have indicated the presence of bacteria in the tumor-associated microbiota, which play an important role in cancer development, immunosurveillance, metastasis, and chemoresistance. Molecular analysis and bioimaging data have also shown the existence of intratumoral microbiota across major cancer types. There is a lack of evidence regarding the specific identity of host cells through which tumor-associated microbes interact with cancer patients' tumor cells. Additionally, little evidence has been documented related to identifying specific cells that harbor organisms. The effect of precise host–microbial cellular interactions and spatial distribution of the intratumoral microbiota on their functional capabilities within TME is not apparent. About the Study 16S rRNA gene sequencing of tumor tissues of CRC patients indicated the presence of various bacteria, including Fusobacterium. The abundance of this bacteria [...]

2022-11-21T12:07:55-07:00November, 2022|Oral Cancer News|

Parsing the genetic drivers of head and neck cancers

Source: Author: UC San Diego press release Head and neck cancer, which kills more than 400,000 persons worldwide each year, has multiple causes. The human papilloma virus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, is one, but the most common and lethal subtype are HPV-negative head and neck cancers, which account for 3 percent of all malignancies in the United States and 15,000 deaths annually. “Typically, head and neck cancers begin in the squamous cells that line the mucosal surfaces, such as inside the mouth and throat and there are multiple treatment options, including surgery, radiation and chemotherapy,” said Ezra Cohen, MD, co-director of the Gleiberman Head and Neck Cancer Center at Moores Cancer Center at UC San Diego Health. “But these cancers are complex and no single treatment works for every patient every time, which is why immune checkpoint inhibitors were developed, which use antibodies to make tumor cells visible to a patient’s immune system.” Immune checkpoint therapy (ICT) first emerged in the 1990s and has progressed dramatically in recent years, but drug resistance in head and neck cancer cases remains prevalent, poorly understood and largely unidentified by current biomarker tests, said Cohen. Currently available Food and Drug Administration-approved PD-1 (a protein) immune checkpoint antibody therapy produces durable responses in 15 percent of patients with head and neck squamous cancer. The remaining 85 percent receive no benefit and may, in fact, experience severe, immune-related adverse effects.  Like other types of head and neck cancer, the HPV-negative subtype has multiple risk [...]

2022-11-17T21:39:36-07:00November, 2022|Oral Cancer News|

Deep learning algorithm outperforms radiologists in detecting head and neck cancer spread

Source: Author: Rod Tucker A deep learning algorithm predicted pathologic extranodal extension in patients with head and neck cancer more successfully than radiologists A deep learning algorithm (DLA) has been found able to better predict pathologic microscopic and macroscopic extranodal extension (ENE), indicative of cancer spread, than radiologists according to the findings of a study presented at the World Cancer Congress, 2022. Worldwide, head and neck cancers account for approximately 900,000 cases and over 400,000 deaths annually. Typically, treatment strategies consist of radiation with or without chemotherapy or upfront surgery followed by adjuvant radiation with chemotherapy. ENE, and which is also referred to extracapsular extension or extracapsular spread, occurs when metastatic tumour cells within the lymph node break through the nodal capsule into surrounding tissues. Moreover, in locally advanced head and neck cancer, extracapsular spread of the tumour from neck nodes is a significant prognostic factor associated with a poor outcome. A further problem is that ENE can only be reliably diagnosed from postoperative pathology and if present, warrants adjuvant treatment intensification with the addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy. The presence of ENE can be determined from CT scans although the method is not very accurate. Nevertheless, in a previous study, the same researchers developed a deep learning algorithm that enabled the prediction of ENE with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.91, prompting the authors to conclude that such a model has the potential for use as a clinical decision-making tool to help [...]

2022-11-03T14:26:14-07:00November, 2022|Oral Cancer News|

Leukoplakia: causes, symptoms, and treatment

Source: Author: Dr Amna Bilal Have you ever encountered white patches or spots on your tongue or inside your cheeks? Leukoplakia, a disorder in which white lesions develop inside the mouth, may be the cause. You may have leukoplakia, a mouth condition if you've observed white patches in your mouth that don't appear to go away. Leukoplakia is more common in areas of the mouth with mucous membranes, such as the gums, the inside of the cheek, and the tongue. The skin around the mouth becomes thicker as a result of this condition, and white patches start to appear there. A mouth condition called leukoplakia affects 1% to 2% of people. Most cases involve men over the age of 50, and it typically affects people over the age of 40. Leukoplakia is uncommonly diagnosed in people under the age of 30. Leukoplakia can be challenging for clinicians to identify because some of its symptoms are shared by those of other frequent disorders and diseases of the mouth. However, a proper diagnosis of leukoplakia is required before a biopsy may be performed. Leukoplakia-related lesions can potentially develop malignant cells, resulting in oral and mouth cancer. Leukoplakia: What is it? The condition known as leukoplakia manifests as a white or a grey area on the tongue, the inside of the cheek, or the floor of the mouth. It is the mouth's response to persistent (chronic) mouth mucous membrane irritation. The female genital area can also develop leukoplakia patches, albeit the reason [...]

Stopping the spread: Targeting tumor metastasis

Source: Author: staff The process of metastasis is when cancer cells gain motility and spread to other sites of the body. Because this is one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths, researchers have aimed to develop therapeutic strategies that can block metastasis. In a recent article published in Cell Reports, a team led by researchers at Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) describe how a cell signaling molecule called transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) can help oral cancer cells acquire such dangerous motility. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs when cancer cells obtain more stem-like and invasive properties, and is induced by various signals and stimuli within the tumor microenvironment. The group focused on the signaling molecule TGF-β as its reported effects seem contradictory: TGF-β can induce EMT in cancer cells but also seems to block their proliferation by keeping them in an early phase of the cell division cycle called G1. Therefore, the researchers aimed to characterize the molecular details of these mechanisms at the single-cell level. “It is not fully clear if tumor cells stimulated by TGF-β can display both EMT induction and cell cycle arrest,” says lead author of the study Kazuki Takahashi. “Single-cell analysis will help us understand if these events occur in distinct cell populations.” To examine this, the team utilized specially engineered versions of oral cancer cells that fluoresce red if they are in the G1 phase or green if they are in any other cell cycle phase. The number of red cells increased when [...]

New guidance for care of patients with oral potentially malignant disorders

Source: Author: Anisha Hall Hoppe, Dental Tribune International General dental practitioners (GDPs) now have clearer recommendations to which they can refer for successfully monitoring and managing oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) in patients who have been discharged from specialised oral or maxillofacial units. Based on advice from a group of eight universities, research institutes and health programmes across Europe, an educational article outlines the essential symptomology, associated risks and best practices for follow-up for GDPs who have previously lacked official guidance for after-care in such cases. OPMDs have been defined by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Oral Cancer as “any oral mucosal abnormality that is associated with a statistically increased risk of developing oral cancer”. Prevalence is estimated to vary widely in different parts of the world; however, the overall incidence of OPMDs is about 4.47% globally. As the COVID-19 pandemic drastically altered the capabilities of GDPs, the Royal College of Surgeons of England introduced guidance specific to triaging and patient management for the altered circumstances, which assisted GDPs who were under added pressure to identify OPMDs while working with fewer resources. However, once their patients have been successfully diagnosed, treated and released from a specialist unit, there is generally a lack of guidance available for those same GDPs for ongoing case management. In this paper, the contributing organisations cover the management of the following conditions: leucoplakia, proliferative verrucous leucoplakia, erythroplakia, oral lichen planus, lichenoid lesions, oral lupus erythematosus, actinic cheilitis, palatal lesions in reverse smokers, dyskeratosis [...]

CUE-101 gets fast tracked for recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

Source: Author: Kristi Rosa The FDA has granted a fast track designation to CUE-101 for use as a monotherapy and in combination with pembrolizumab (Keytruda) in patients with human papillomavirus (HPV16+) recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).1 CUE-101 is an off-the-shelf therapy that was designed to trigger and expand HPV16 tumor-specific T cells by exhibiting 2 cues to T cells. The first signal includes the HPV E7 protein, which is harbored by HPV-induced cancer cells and interacts with the HPV-specific T-cell receptor to offer selectivity. The second signal is comprised of an engineered interleukin-2 variant that fuels T cell activity. “We are very pleased to have received fast track designation from the FDA for CUE-101. This designation not only underscores the large unmet need for patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer who currently rely on available non-targeted therapies, but also highlights the potential of CUE-101 to provide a significant clinical benefit,” Matteo Levisetti, MD, senior vice president of Clinical Development at Cue Biopharma, Inc., stated in a press release. Previously, investigators evaluated the potential of CUE-101 to selectively activate and expand HPV16 E7–specific CD8-positive T cells in patients with HPV-driven cancers, including HNSCC, cervical cancer, and anal cancer.2 To showcase the activity of the product, human E7-specific T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) were tested. To evaluate the in vivo activity of CUE-101, investigators evaluated the product in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. The agent was found to selectively bind, activate, and expand HPV16 [...]

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