Biosensor allows rapid detection of oral cancer

Source: Author: staff A biosensor for oral cancer has been developed by researchers from the University of Florida and National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University in Taiwan. The device uses a rapid transistor-based system and is much faster and more convenient than current lab-based tests. Their study was published in Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B. “Oral squamous cell carcinomas are one of the most common lip and oral cavity cancer types,” said Minghan Xian, co-author and a researcher at the University of Florida. “It requires early detection via various medical technologies to improve the survival rate.” Oral cancers are the 16th most common type of cancer. Cancers of the lip and oral cavity are the most common, with more than 377,700 cases worldwide in 2020, according to the World Cancer Research Fund International. Since oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) occurs in one of the most accessible sites in the body, it can be easily treated if detected promptly. Oral cancers that remain localized and are 2 centimeters or smaller can be cured — five-year survival rates exceed 90%. “The standard of care for oral cancer detection is a biopsy, which is invasive, expensive and takes several weeks to obtain results. Since our sensor is a true point of care, we envision this technology to offer chairside assistance to dentists on whether or not a biopsy is warranted,” Co-author Josephine Esquivel-Upshaw, professor at the University of Florida College of Dentistry, told Inside Precision Medicine. Biosensors have long been [...]

2022-12-15T13:31:19-07:00December, 2022|Oral Cancer News|

Scents and sense-abilities: using bug brainpower to smell cancer

Source: Author: Iris Kulbatski, PhD There are millions of sensory worlds that humans cannot perceive. Fathoming what it is like to be a wild thing is beyond the limited resolution of human senses. For example, insects live in a world of smell, decoding the subtle chemical nuances of scent that waft across their antennae. In the case of locusts—the migratory swarming form of certain asocial grasshoppers—their sense of smell is intimately tied to their physical and communal transformation. Certain environmental conditions trigger locusts to molt and secrete pheromones that attract more locusts.1,2 After shedding their old body and solitary existence, billions of locusts aggregate in devastating swarms that eclipse the sun and plague humans. This dramatic body and lifestyle makeover depends on their exquisite ability to detect and differentiate subtle odors.3 Recently, Debajit Saha, an assistant professor of biomedical engineering at Michigan State University, and his team tapped into the odor-sensing circuitry of the locust brain to detect the scent signatures of human oral cancers. Saha previously used locusts for sniffing out bombs,4 making the transition to cancer detection an interesting one. “Cancer changes [cellular] metabolism and those changes are reflected in exhaled breath,” Saha said. Known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), these unique chemical signatures are promising biomarkers of disease—if scientists can detect them. Other researchers are engineering artificial sensors—also known as electronic noses—to identify cancer, but their sensitivity, specificity, and speed are still limited compared to creatures that inhabit a sensory landscape of smell. Saha’s team is [...]

2022-12-13T09:10:26-07:00December, 2022|Oral Cancer News|

Why Big Tobacco’s attempts to rehabilitate its image are so dangerous

Source: Author: staff In September, Imperial Tobacco Canada, the Canadian subsidiary of British American Tobacco, was awarded the “Great Place to Work” certification, one of the leading authorities on workplace culture. Since then, Imperial Tobacco Canada representatives have met with graduate students across the country, including at the University of Toronto’s Rotman School of Management, York University’s Schulich School of Business and McGill University’s Desautels Faculty of Management, urging students to “come join us as we build a better tomorrow.” As of May 2022, Imperial Tobacco Canada was listed as a Presidents’ Circle Member on the University of Toronto website, to acknowledge their “vital financial support at the leadership level.” Despite Big Tobacco’s efforts to renormalize itself, we should all be very wary of engaging with the self-described “Bold, Fast, Empowered” corporate culture. Suppressing incriminating evidence British American Tobacco and other big tobacco companies have known about the clear links between smoking and a host of diseases, including cancer, since at least the 1950s. Despite this, they did not disclose their internal damning evidence. Instead, they aggressively undermined mounting scientific evidence of the public health risks associated with their products through a sophisticated array of deceitful strategies and tactics. These included funding dubious research, relying on allies that did not disclose their links to the industry, along with other forms of aggressive lobbying and marketing. Fast forward 70 years, and tobacco remains the leading cause of cancer worldwide today. Epidemiologist Prabhat Jha estimates that one death results from each [...]

2022-12-05T08:30:51-07:00December, 2022|Oral Cancer News|

Time for warnings on alcohol

Source: Author: Star Editorial Board What if you were to learn that a product you've consumed for years is associated with serious health effects, including cancer? You’d probably approach your federal and provincial representatives and ask them to investigate why those in the know failed to warn you of the danger. As it happens, it isn't hypothetical. The product is alcohol, whose carcinogenic effect has been evident since at least 1910, when a medical journal reported a relationship between alcohol misuse and esophageal and stomach cancers. More than a century later, most Canadians are still unaware of the link between alcohol consumption and cancer: According to a Canadian Cancer Society survey, only 28 per cent of Ontarians are aware of the relationship, largely because the message hasn’t been posted where people are likely to see it. Yet the risks are real. The Canadian Cancer Society says that drinking alcohol raises the risk of developing head and neck, breast, stomach, pancreatic, liver and colorectal cancers. Their message: “The less alcohol you drink, the more you reduce your risk.” There's a simple way to inform Canadians, and it doesn't require that they peruse some dusty old medical journal. All they should need to do is look at a bottle of booze to discover the association between alcohol and cancer, as well as ways to avoid negative health effects by following low-risk drinking guidelines. Canadians are, after all, intimately familiar with warning labels on everything from food to sporting equipment to toys. [...]

2022-12-05T08:15:21-07:00December, 2022|Oral Cancer News|

Very few Americans know drinking alcohol increases cancer risk, study finds

Source: Author: Linda Carroll Despite conclusive research showing that all alcoholic beverages, including wine, increase the risk of many types of cancer, a survey of nearly 4,000 U.S. adults found that less than a third knew that alcohol consumption was a risk factor for cancer. Even fewer, just over 20%, realized that drinking wine could raise the risk of cancer, according to the report published Thursday in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. The new findings show that “most Americans don’t know that alcohol is a leading modifiable risk factor for cancer,” Andrew Seidenberg, Ph.D., who was a cancer prevention fellow at the National Cancer Institute when the research was conducted, tells “All alcoholic beverages increase cancer risk, but there are variations in awareness by the beverage type, with wine being the lowest. In fact, 10% of U.S. adults incorrectly believe that wine decreases cancer risk.” Unfortunately, the link hasn’t gotten much attention in the media, says Seidenberg, who is now research director at Truth Initiative, a nonprofit public health organization. A 2021 study found that alcohol consumption accounted for 75,199 cancer cases and 18,947 cancer deaths annually in the U.S. Other research has linked alcohol consumption to several types of cancer, including cancers of the breast, mouth and colon. Most Americans drink, and Seidenberg wonders if some would choose to cut back if they understood the link with cancer. In 2019, 54.9% (59.1% of men, 51% of women) reported drinking in the past month, with 25.8% (29.7% of [...]

2022-12-03T08:04:58-07:00December, 2022|Oral Cancer News|

Stanley Tucci was “like a ghost in [his] own house” when he had cancer

Source: Author: staff The 62-year-old actor - who has three adult children with late first wife Kathryn Spath and Matteo, seven, and Emilia, four, with wife Felicity Blunt - was diagnosed with tongue cancer in 2017 and he admitted he reached a period where he "didn't see the point of living" if he would no longer be able to enjoy the pleasure of enjoying a meal with his loved ones again He said: "I was a cranky patient. Because I was miserable. I thought it was never going to go away. And I was like, how did this happen... "There were times when I thought I was never going to be able to eat with my family again. The things I love to do are eat and taste and drink. And I love to do them with the people I love. "If I can't do that, then I really don't see the point of living. "I spent months and months up in my room, listening to everybody. Like a ghost in my own house. People coming and going. And I would go down and I would cook, but I couldn't eat it - but I'd want to cook. "Sometimes it almost made me ill to do it, but I wanted to do it. It was pretty f****** awful." The 'Supernova' star has since gone into remission but there are still some foods and drinks he can't enjoy the way he used to. He told You magazine: "Since I wrote [...]

2022-11-30T21:38:56-07:00November, 2022|Oral Cancer News|

Treatment side effects to head and neck cancer patients reduced using immunotherapy

Source: Authors: Shan Lam, Nathan Amery Head and neck cancer patients suffer many side effects from conventional treatments, research shows such side effects can be reduced by using the recently developed “immunotherapy” treatment. Hong Kong Cancer Information Charity Foundation (CICF) announced the results of a questionnaire survey on “head and neck cancers” on Nov. 15. It was found that over 80 percent of the respondents experienced eating difficulties, including taste changes, dry mouth, difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) and oral ulcers; Respondents who received conventional treatment reported an average of 8.5 treatment side effects, and 43 percent had 10 or more side effects. CICF pointed out that the emergence of “immunotherapy” in recent years has reduced the side effects of conventional treatments and urged the government to include related treatments in funding projects. According to the CICF, head and neck cancers refer to cancer lesions in the head and neck, which can be divided into two types: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. They are named after the original organs, such as oral cancer, hypopharyngeal cancer, and throat cancer. Over the past ten years, the number of new cases of head and neck cancers in Hong Kong has continued to rise, and the average number of deaths is 210 each year, accounting for 30 percent of those new cases. In the middle of 2022, the research team interviewed 97 head and neck cancer patients directly or through their caregivers in the form of an online questionnaire. The purpose was [...]

2022-11-30T21:31:35-07:00November, 2022|Oral Cancer News|

The role of bacteria in cancer growth

Source: Author: Dr. Priyom Bose, Ph.D., reviewed by Aimee Molineux Tumor-associated microbiota is an important component of the tumor microenvironment (TME) across 33 types of human cancer. However, little evidence is available regarding the spatial distribution and localization of these microbes in tumor cells. Addressing this gap in research, a recent Nature journal study evaluated spatial, cellular, and molecular host-microbe interactions in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, scientists mapped host–bacterial cellular, spatial, and molecular interactions within the TME using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and in situ spatial-profiling technologies. Background Typically, cancer patients' tumors comprise malignant cells surrounded by a compound network of non-malignant cells. These cells might exhibit pro- or anti-tumorigenic effects based on their abundance and type. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments have indicated the presence of bacteria in the tumor-associated microbiota, which play an important role in cancer development, immunosurveillance, metastasis, and chemoresistance. Molecular analysis and bioimaging data have also shown the existence of intratumoral microbiota across major cancer types. There is a lack of evidence regarding the specific identity of host cells through which tumor-associated microbes interact with cancer patients' tumor cells. Additionally, little evidence has been documented related to identifying specific cells that harbor organisms. The effect of precise host–microbial cellular interactions and spatial distribution of the intratumoral microbiota on their functional capabilities within TME is not apparent. About the Study 16S rRNA gene sequencing of tumor tissues of CRC patients indicated the presence of various bacteria, including Fusobacterium. The abundance of this bacteria [...]

2022-11-21T12:07:55-07:00November, 2022|Oral Cancer News|

Parsing the genetic drivers of head and neck cancers

Source: Author: UC San Diego press release Head and neck cancer, which kills more than 400,000 persons worldwide each year, has multiple causes. The human papilloma virus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, is one, but the most common and lethal subtype are HPV-negative head and neck cancers, which account for 3 percent of all malignancies in the United States and 15,000 deaths annually. “Typically, head and neck cancers begin in the squamous cells that line the mucosal surfaces, such as inside the mouth and throat and there are multiple treatment options, including surgery, radiation and chemotherapy,” said Ezra Cohen, MD, co-director of the Gleiberman Head and Neck Cancer Center at Moores Cancer Center at UC San Diego Health. “But these cancers are complex and no single treatment works for every patient every time, which is why immune checkpoint inhibitors were developed, which use antibodies to make tumor cells visible to a patient’s immune system.” Immune checkpoint therapy (ICT) first emerged in the 1990s and has progressed dramatically in recent years, but drug resistance in head and neck cancer cases remains prevalent, poorly understood and largely unidentified by current biomarker tests, said Cohen. Currently available Food and Drug Administration-approved PD-1 (a protein) immune checkpoint antibody therapy produces durable responses in 15 percent of patients with head and neck squamous cancer. The remaining 85 percent receive no benefit and may, in fact, experience severe, immune-related adverse effects.  Like other types of head and neck cancer, the HPV-negative subtype has multiple risk [...]

2022-11-17T21:39:36-07:00November, 2022|Oral Cancer News|

Deep learning algorithm outperforms radiologists in detecting head and neck cancer spread

Source: Author: Rod Tucker A deep learning algorithm predicted pathologic extranodal extension in patients with head and neck cancer more successfully than radiologists A deep learning algorithm (DLA) has been found able to better predict pathologic microscopic and macroscopic extranodal extension (ENE), indicative of cancer spread, than radiologists according to the findings of a study presented at the World Cancer Congress, 2022. Worldwide, head and neck cancers account for approximately 900,000 cases and over 400,000 deaths annually. Typically, treatment strategies consist of radiation with or without chemotherapy or upfront surgery followed by adjuvant radiation with chemotherapy. ENE, and which is also referred to extracapsular extension or extracapsular spread, occurs when metastatic tumour cells within the lymph node break through the nodal capsule into surrounding tissues. Moreover, in locally advanced head and neck cancer, extracapsular spread of the tumour from neck nodes is a significant prognostic factor associated with a poor outcome. A further problem is that ENE can only be reliably diagnosed from postoperative pathology and if present, warrants adjuvant treatment intensification with the addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy. The presence of ENE can be determined from CT scans although the method is not very accurate. Nevertheless, in a previous study, the same researchers developed a deep learning algorithm that enabled the prediction of ENE with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.91, prompting the authors to conclude that such a model has the potential for use as a clinical decision-making tool to help [...]

2022-11-03T14:26:14-07:00November, 2022|Oral Cancer News|
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