CDC

Updated HPV vaccine recommendations follow big HPV infection drops shown in new study

Source: www.forbes.com
Author: Tara Haelle

A vial of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil. (AP Photo/Charles Rex Arbogast)

Adults up to age 45 are now recommended to discuss with their doctors getting the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, which prevents 3% of all cancer in women and 2% of all cancer in men—an estimated 34,000 cancers a year in the U.S. Following confirmation from the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the recommendations also extend the age in men from age 21 to age 26, the same as in women.

The decision from the CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) July 26 came the same day The Lancet published the largest study to date on the vaccine’s effectiveness. The meta-analysis of 65 studies found drops of 31%-83% of HPV infections and genital warts in men and women, depending on age and diagnosis.

HPV is responsible for nearly all cervical cancer, over 90% of anal cancer, 70% of oral, throat and neck cancers and over 60% of penile cancer. Though HPV is primarily transmitted through sexual contact, non-sexual transmission occurs as well.

Previously, the HPV vaccine had been recommended for females and males in a series of two doses up to age 14 or three doses up to age 26 in women and age 21 in men. Men ages 22-26 could also get the vaccine.

ACIP’s unanimous vote to extend the recommendation to age 26 in men corresponds to evidence showing the vaccine’s substantial benefits for men. In fact, research shows men to be up to six times more likely than women to develop an oral infection with the highest risk strain of HPV.

ACIP’s 10-4 vote regarding adults ages 27-45 who haven’t received the HPV vaccine emphasizes shared decision-making with their providers. The HPV vaccine is not licensed by the FDA for adults older than 45 since data on its effectiveness does not exist for this age group.

The “decision from ACIP emphasizes what the data has shown—that the HPV vaccine is safe and effective for use in patients ages 27 to 45, and that use of the vaccine in this age group should be the result of shared decision-making between patients and their trusted physicians,” Christopher M. Zahn, M.D., vice president of Practice Activities at the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) said in a statement.

“Obstetrician-gynecologists are encouraged to discuss with their patients ages 27 to 45 the potential benefits of HPV vaccination, addressing the reduced efficacy compared to vaccination within the younger target age range as well as the reduced risk of high-grade disease and cervical cancer,” Zahn said, adding getting the vaccine at the recommended age of 11-12 years offers the most benefit.

“Women’s decisions will also likely consider their individual circumstances, preferences, and concerns, and the role of the obstetrician-gynecologist is to provide unbiased information in a balanced, thorough way in order to aid that decision-making,” he said.

New research finds big drops in HPV-related infections

The new study found that HPV infections with strains 16 and 18 dropped 83% among girls ages 13-19 and by 66% among women ages 20-24 up to eight years after vaccination.

The HPV 16 and 18 strains in Gardasil cause 70 percent of all cervical, vaginal, vulvar and anal cancers. Gardasil 9 also protects against HPV 6 and 11, which cause 90% of genital warts, and against five other strains (31, 33, 45, 52, and 58). Together, the strains in Gardasil 9 represent 90% of HPV-related cancers.

HPV infections caused by HPV 21, 33 and 45 cut in half (54%) among vaccinated girls ages 15-19, according to the new research. Similarly, genital warts diagnoses fell by 67% in these girls and by 48% in boys of the same age. Older men (up to 24) and women (up to 29) also saw declines in genital warts by 31%-54%.

Rates of grade 2 cervical neoplasia, a precursor to cancer, also dropped by half (51%) in screened girls 15-19 and by 31% in women 20-24 years.

Cervical cancer can take up to 20 years to develop, so the vaccine, first approved in 2006, has not been available long enough for a sizable evidence base showing a reduction in cancer incidence. Dramatic declines in HPV infection rates, however, are expected to translate to similar declines in HPV-caused cancer rates, and immunity from the vaccine is long-lasting.

Multiple large reviews of the HPV vaccine have found it to be among the safest vaccines available. While the actual shot itself can be particularly painful, the only regularly reported side effects are pain, redness and soreness at the injection site and, in some teens, temporary fainting, which is common with many vaccines in adolescents. Among 13,000 people in the clinical trials for Gardasil 9, five people also reported fever, allergy to the vaccine, asthmatic crisis, headache and tonsillitis, though not all of these were determined to be caused by the vaccine.

The most effective way to reduce cervical cancer has been and remains regular screenings. However, screenings only detect early development of abnormal tissue that could become cancerous whereas the HPV vaccine prevents the viral infections that leads to those tissue abnormalities in the first place.

Since there is no current way to screen for throat/mouth/neck or anal cancer in women or men (or penile cancer in men), the HPV vaccine remains the only way to prevent those cancers.

CDC: Top HPV-Associated Cancer Is Now Oropharyngeal

Date: 08/23/18
Source: medscape.com
Author: Nick Mulcahy

Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is now the most common HPV-associated cancer in the United States, according to a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that covers the years 1999 to 2015.

During that period, cervical cancer dropped from being the top HPV-associated cancer and oropharyngeal SCC took its place.

The transition happened because cervical carcinoma incidence rates decreased 1.6% per year, and oropharyngeal SCC incidence rates increased 2.7% per year among men and 0.8% per year among women.

In 2015, there were a total of 11,788 cervical cancers compared with 18,917 oropharyngeal SCCs.

The decline in cervical cancer is a “continued trend since the 1950s as a result of cancer screening,” write the report authors, led by Elizabeth Van Dyne, MD, MPH, an epidemic intelligence service officer at the CDC.

The uptick in oropharyngeal SCC could be due in part to “changing sexual behaviors,” including unprotected oral sex, especially among white men, who report having the highest number of sexual partners and performing oral sex at a younger age compared with other racial/ethnic groups, the authors say.

Oropharyngeal SCCs include those at the base of tongue, pharyngeal tonsils, anterior and posterior tonsillar pillars, glos­sotonsillar sulci, anterior surface of soft palate and uvula, and lateral and posterior pharyngeal walls.

The new report was published August 24 in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

The study authors defined HPV-associated cancer as “an invasive malignancy in which HPV DNA was frequently found in special studies.” In other words, the new study data reveal the total number of certain cancers that are associated with — but not necessarily caused by — HPV.

A total of 30,115 new cases of HPV-associated cancers were reported in 1999 and 43,371 in 2015.

Overall, the rate of HPV-associated cancers dropped among women (change, –0.4%) during the study period and rose among men (change, 2.4%).

The CDC analyzed data from their National Program of Cancer Registries and the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program for all years from 1999 to 2015. “These data cover approximately 97.8% of the US population,” say the authors.

However, these two population-based cancer registries have a limitation: They tally invasive cancers but not the HPV status of cancers.

The authors point out HPV causes cervical cancer and “some oropharyngeal, vulvar, vaginal, penile, and anal cancers.”

Table. Annual Change in Type of Cancer From 1999 to 2015

Cancer Type Average Annual Change (%)
Cervical –1.6
Vaginal –0.6
Oropharyngeal in men 2.7
Oropharyngeal in women 0.8
Anal in men 2.1
Anal in women 2.9
Vulvar 1.3

Penile cancer rates remained stable during the study period.

The study authors say that the public health implication of the study is that HPV vaccination “can prevent infection with the HPV types most strongly associated with cancer.”

January, 2019|Oral Cancer News|

DCD: Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma now and most common HPV associated with cancer

In 2015, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma surpassed cervical cancer as the most common HPV-associated cancer in the U.S., with 15,479 cases among men and 3,438 cases among women, according to data from the CDC published in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

The report also showed that rates of HPV-related anal squamous cell carcinoma and vulvar cancer increased over the past 15 years, whereas rates of HPV-related cervical cancer and vaginal squamous cell carcinoma decreased.

“Although smoking is a risk factor for oropharyngeal cancers, smoking rates have been declining in the United States, and studies have indicated that the increase in oropharyngeal cancer is attributable to HPV,” Elizabeth A. Van Dyne, MD, epidemic intelligence services officer in division of cancer prevention and control at the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion of the CDC, and colleagues wrote.

“In contrast to cervical cancer, there currently is no U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommended screening for other HPV-associated cancers,” they added.

The trends in HPV-related cancers report included data from 1999 to 2015 from cancer registries — CDC’s National Program of Cancer Registries and NCI’s SEER program — covering 97.8% of the U.S. population.

The CDC reported 30,115 new cases of HPV-associated cancers in 1999 compared with 43,371 new cases in 2015.

During the study period, researchers observed a 2.7% increase in rates of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma among men and a 0.8% increase among women. Rates of anal squamous cell carcinoma increased by 2.1% among men and 2.9% among women.

Among women, researchers observed a 1.6% decrease in HPV-related cervical cancer and a 0.6% decrease in rates of HPV-related vaginal squamous cell carcinoma. Rates of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma increased by 1.3%.

Rates of penile squamous cell carcinoma remained stable from 1999 to 2015.

Overall, rates of HPV-related cancers varied by age and race/ethnicity.

Researchers observed a 4% increase in the rate of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma among men aged 60 to 69 years compared with a 0.8% increase among men aged 40 to 49 years.

For anal squamous cell carcinoma, the largest increases occurred among women aged 50 to 69 years (4.6% to 4.8%) and men aged 50 to 59 years (4%).

Several factors contribute to the increased incidence of oropharyngeal and anal squamous cell carcinomas, including changes in sexual behavior.

“Unprotected oral sex and receptive anal sex are risk factors for HPV infection,” the researchers wrote. “White men have the highest number of lifetime oral sex partners and report first performing oral sex at a younger age compared with other racial/ethnic groups; these risk factors could be contributing to a higher rate of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma among white men than other racial/ethnic groups.”

Cervical cancer rates remained stable among women aged 35 to 39 years; however, younger and older woman demonstrated decreases ranging from 1.2% to 4.2%.

Cervical carcinoma rates decreased across all racial/ethnic groups, although decreases appeared more prominent among Hispanics than non-Hispanics (3.4% vs. 1.5%).

“The decline in cervical cancer from 1999 to 2015 represents a continued trend since the 1950s as a result of cancer screening,” the researchers wrote. “Rates of cervical carcinoma in this report decreased more among Hispanics, American Indian/Alaska Natives and blacks than other groups; however, incidence rates were still higher among Hispanics and blacks than among whites in 2015. These persistent disparities in incidence suggest that health care delivery needs of some groups are not fully met.”

The limitations of the report included the fact that the cancer registries do not routinely determine the HPV status of cancers and that race/ethnicity data was derived from medical records.

“Further research to understand the progression from HPV infection to oropharyngeal cancer would be beneficial,” the researchers wrote. “Continued surveillance through high-quality registries is important to monitor changes in HPV-associated cancer incidence.” – by Cassie Homer

August, 2018|Oral Cancer News|

NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Issue Statement in Support of New CDC Recommendations on HPV Vaccination

Source: The ASCO Post
Posted: 1/11/2017

The 69 National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated cancer centers have issued a joint statement in support of recently revised recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to improve national vaccination rates for human papillomavirus (HPV).

According to the CDC, incidence rates of HPV-associated cancers have continued to rise, with approximately 39,000 new HPV-associated cancers now diagnosed each year in the United States. Although HPV vaccines can prevent the majority of cervical, anal, oropharyngeal, and other genital cancers, vaccination rates remain low across the United States, with just 41.9% of girls and 28.1% of boys completing the recommended vaccine series.

New Recommendations

The new guidelines from the CDC recommend that children under age 15 should receive 2 doses of the 9-valent HPV vaccine at least 6 months apart. Adolescents and young adults older than 14 should continue to complete the 3-dose series.

Research shows there are a number of barriers to overcome to improve vaccination rates, including a lack of strong recommendations from physicians and parents not understanding that this vaccine protects against several types of cancer. In an effort to overcome these barriers, NCI-designated cancer centers have organized a continuing series of national summits to share new research, discuss best practices, and identify collective action toward improving vaccination rates.

The original joint statement, published in January 2016, was the major recommendation from a summit hosted at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer in November 2015, which brought together experts from the NCI, CDC, American Cancer Society, and more than half of the NCI-designated cancer centers.

The updated statement is the result of discussions from the most recent summit, hosted this past summer by The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center. Nearly 150 experts from across the country gathered in Columbus to present research updates and plan future collaborative actions across NCI-designated cancer centers.

 

“This news story was resourced by the Oral Cancer Foundation, and vetted for appropriateness and accuracy.”

January, 2017|Oral Cancer News|

America’s Most Popular ‘Legal’ Drug is Responsible for 25% of ALL Cancer

Source: www.thefreethoughtproject.com
Author: John Vibes

There are many factors contributing to the massive rise in cancer cases in the US, but according to a new study from the American Cancer Society, cigarette smoke is by far the leading cause. The study found that roughly 25% of all cancer deaths could be attributed to cigarette smoking.

Although cigarette smoking has waned somewhat in recent years, nearly 40 million adults in the U.S. currently smoke cigarettes. The CDC says cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the U.S., responsible for more than 480,000 deaths annually.

According to the study:

We estimate that at least 167133 cancer deaths in the United States in 2014 (28.6% of all cancer deaths; 95% CI, 28.2%-28.8%) were attributable to cigarette smoking. Among men, the proportion of cancer deaths attributable to smoking ranged from a low of 21.8% in Utah (95% CI, 19.9%-23.5%) to a high of 39.5% in Arkansas (95% CI, 36.9%-41.7%), but was at least 30% in every state except Utah. Among women, the proportion ranged from 11.1% in Utah (95% CI, 9.6%-12.3%) to 29.0% in Kentucky (95% CI, 27.2%-30.7%) and was at least 20% in all states except Utah, California, and Hawaii. Nine of the top 10 ranked states for men and 6 of the top 10 ranked states for women were located in the South. In men, smoking explained nearly 40% of cancer deaths in the top 5 ranked states (Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee, West Virginia, and Kentucky). In women, smoking explained more than 26% of all cancer deaths in the top 5 ranked states, which included 3 Southern states (Kentucky, Arkansas, and Tennessee), and 2 Western states (Alaska and Nevada).

Smoking is one of the leading causes of illness and death in the world. The use of tobacco has become more widespread than ever and the substance itself is far more dangerous than it has ever been before.

Today, cigarettes are mass produced and treated with thousands of additives and chemicals. Carcinogenic, poisonous chemicals and toxic metals can all be found in modern tobacco products. These chemicals are present for many reasons ranging from taste and preservation to being purposely addictive. There are over 4000 of these chemicals in cigarettes and all of them are not revealed to the public. They are protected under law as “trade secrets” — meaning they can add anything they want in there without our knowledge.

The financial advantage alone should be enough of an argument to quit smoking. In most states, cigarettes are now over 6 dollars a pack, more than half of which is taxes. So people are literally paying the government and rich multinational corporations an average of 10 dollars every day, for a product that destroys their bodies. It is true that there are addictive chemicals in cigarettes but their strength and power has been blown way out of proportion.

The psychological addiction is always much stronger than the physical addiction even with harsh narcotics like heroin and especially with nicotine. All you have to do is stop and get through a few days without it. Soon enough the smell and taste will no longer be desirable to you and you will be happy to have that extra 6 dollars a pack in your pocket. It will be easier to breathe, you won’t get sick as often and you will overall be in better spirits. Quitting cigarettes is one decision that you can make that will drastically improve your life in a number of ways and it will give the elite less control of your money and your health.

*This news story was resourced by the Oral Cancer Foundation, and vetted for appropriateness and accuracy.

October, 2016|Oral Cancer News|

Pre-Teens need just two doses of HPV vaccine, not three: Feds

Source: www.nbcnews.com/health
Author: Maggie Fox

There’s good news for kids who haven’t received all their HPV vaccines yet – they only need two doses of the vaccine instead of three, federal government advisers said Wednesday. The new recommendations should make it easier to get more children vaccinated against the human papillomavirus (HPV), which causes a range of cancers including cervical cancer, throat cancer and mouth cancer, officials said.

“It’s not often you get a recommendation simplifying vaccine schedules,” said Dr. Nancy Messonnier, Director of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The CDC immediately accepted the recommendations from its Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.

“Safe, effective, and long-lasting protection against HPV cancers with two visits instead of three means more Americans will be protected from cancer,” said CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden. “This recommendation will make it simpler for parents to get their children protected in time.”

The CDC says every pre-teen boy and girl should get the vaccine, but fewer than a third have received all three doses.

Messonnier says the three-dose schedule was based on the earliest studies of the vaccine. New studies show that two doses protect people for decades from the cancer-causing virus. And studies also suggest that spacing the two doses a year apart is at least as effective, if not more effective than giving them more closely together – something that could also make it easier to get kids fully vaccinated.

Older teens who have not been vaccinated at all before age 15 should still get three doses, because there’s not enough evidence to show whether two doses fully protect them, ACIP said.

Adults can also get the HPV vaccine. “Young women can get HPV vaccine through age 26, and young men can get vaccinated through age 21,” the CDC says.

“The vaccine is also recommended for any man who has sex with men through age 26, and for men with compromised immune systems (including HIV) through age 26, if they did not get HPV vaccine when they were younger.”

HPV is extremely common, but rates of HPV-related disease have fallen among vaccinated people.

“About 14 million people, including teens, become infected with HPV each year. HPV infection can cause cervical,vaginal, and vulvar cancers in women; penile cancer in men; and anal cancer, cancer of the back of the throat (oropharynx), and genital warts in both men and women,” the CDC says.

The original two vaccines on the market protected against either two or four of the strains of HPV known to cause cancer. Now the only vaccine available in the U.S. is Merck’s Gardasil 9, which protect against 9 strains of HPV.

Messonnier says it’s too soon to say whether teens vaccinated with the older vaccines should get a top-up dose with the new formulation.

October, 2016|Oral Cancer News|

e-Cigarette Use Tied to Tobacco Use in Teenagers

Source: www.Medscape.com
Author: Diana Swift
 

e-Cigarette smoking appears to promote progression to traditional cigarette smoking and may be helping form a new population of smokers, according to a prospective study published online September 8 in JAMA Pediatrics.

Brian A. Primack, MD, PhD, from the Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in Pennsylvania, and colleagues analyzed data on 694 young nonsmokers who were attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking at baseline. The very small proportion (2.3%) who already used e-cigarettes at baseline proved more likely to progress to smoking or to being open to it.

The cohort, which was more than 75% non-Hispanic white, consisted of 374 females. The mean age of the 16 baseline e-cigarette users was 19.5 years compared with 20 years for nonusers.

Study data came from waves 2 and 3 of the US-based Dartmouth Media, Advertising, and Health Study, a national survey of adolescents and young adults aged 16 to 26 years who were recruited via random digit dialing using landline (66.7%) and cellular (33.3%) telephone numbers.

The survey, conducted from October 1, 2012, to May 1, 2014, started tracking e-cigarette use at wave 2 (2012 – 2013), which served as the baseline, whereas wave 3 (2013 – 2014) served as follow-up for the current study.

Eligible participants had to be never-smokers and attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking at baseline. This was assessed with these questions: “If one of your friends offered you a cigarette, would you try it?” and “Do you think you will smoke a cigarette sometime in the next year?” Response options included “definitely yes,” “probably yes,” “probably no,” and “definitely no.” Those who responded “definitely no” to both measures were considered nonsusceptible nonsmokers.

After a year, 11 of 16 baseline e-cigarette users (68.8%) and 128 of 678 participants nonusers (18.9%) progressed to traditional combustible cigarette smoking. After controlling for demographic covariates such as age, sex, and maternal education level, baseline e-cigarette use was independently associated with both progression to smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 8.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 – 58.6) and progression to susceptibility (AOR, 8.5; 95% CI, 1.3 – 57.2) among initially nonsusceptible nonsmokers.

“These findings support regulations that decrease the accessibility and appeal of e-cigarettes to nonsmoking adolescents and young adults,” Dr Primack and associates write.

Conceding that some might see the small percentage of baseline e-smokers as not translating into a substantial public health risk, the researchers caution that e-cigarette use is on the rise. “[D]ata published in 2015 suggest that large numbers of youth are initiating e-cigarette use and that as many as half of these individuals do not smoke traditional combustible cigarettes. Therefore, it will be important to continue surveillance among youth of both e-cigarette use and overlap with use of other tobacco products.”

Noting that many youth may be dual users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, the authors say nicotine exposure may drive initial e-cigarette users to use cigarettes as a more efficient nicotine delivery device. In addition, nicotine content aside, “e-cigarettes may behaviorally accustom individuals to powerful cigarette smoking cues such as inhalation, exhalation, and holding the cigarette.”

Furthermore, e-cigarettes, which expose users to potentially harmful aerosolized substances other than nicotine, are not subject to regulations limiting cigarette smoking, such as age limits for sale, flavoring and marketing restrictions, clean air laws, taxes, and labeling requirements, which may increase their accessibility to youth. “For example, e-cigarettes are marketed on television, representing the first time in more than 40 years that a smoking-related device is advertised on this medium,” the investigators write.

In an accompanying editorial, Jonathan D. Klein, MD, MPH, an adolescent medicine specialist and an associate executive director of the American Academy of Pediatrics in Elk Grove Village, Illinois, noted that a recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report found that e-cigarette use in the National Youth Tobacco Survey increased from 4.5% in 2011 to 13.4% in 2014, affecting more than 2.2 million students. “The article by Primack et al is one more piece of evidence that the effect of e-cigarettes on youth is happening now in real time,” he writes, adding that “these data provide strong longitudinal evidence that e-cigarette use leads to smoking, most likely owing to nicotine addiction.”

Dr Klein also points to mounting concerns among health experts that e-cigarettes will also renormalize smoking, delay or prevent cessation, and cause former smokers to become re-addicted. He says the evidence suggests that e-cigarette users are less likely to quit smoking traditional cigarettes than nonusers In spite of such data and evidence of harm from e-smoking devices. He states that the US Food and Drug Administration has failed to assert authority and oversight over these alternative products.

“We do not need more research on this question; we have the evidence base, and we have strategies that work to protect nonsmokers from e-cigarettes and other forms of tobacco,” Dr Klein writes. “What we still need is the political will to act on the evidence and protect our youth.”

This study was supported by grants from the National Cancer Institute and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. The authors and Dr Klein have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

JAMA Pediatr. Published online September 8, 2015. Article full text, Editorial full text

*This news story was resourced by the Oral Cancer Foundation, and vetted for appropriateness and accuracy.

February, 2016|Oral Cancer News|

NCI-designated Cancer Centers Urge HPV Vaccination for the Prevention of Cancer

Source: www.medicine.wustl.edu
Author: Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis Staff
 

Approximately 79 million people in the United States are currently infected with a human papillomavirus (HPV) according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and 14 million new infections occur each year. Several types of high-risk HPV are responsible for the vast majority of
cervical, anal, oropharyngeal (middle throat) and other genital cancers. The CDC also reports that each year in the U.S., 27,000 men and women are diagnosed with an HPV-related cancer, which amounts to a new case every 20 minutes. Even though many of these HPV-related cancers are preventable with a safe and effective vaccine, HPV vaccination rates across the U.S. remain low.

Together we, a group of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)- designated Cancer Centers, recognize these low rates of HPV vaccination as a serious public health threat. HPV vaccination represents a rare opportunity to prevent many cases of cancer that is tragically underused. As national leaders in cancer research and clinical care, we are compelled to jointly issue this call to action.

According to a 2015 CDC report, only 40 percent of girls and 21 percent of boys in the U.S. are receiving the recommended three doses of the HPV vaccine. This falls far short of the goal of 80 percent by the end of this decade, set forth by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Service’s Healthy People 2020 mission. Furthermore, U.S. rates are significantly lower than those of countries such as Australia (75 percent), the United Kingdom (84-92 percent) and Rwanda (93 percent), which have shown that high vaccination rates are currently achievable. The HPV vaccines, like all vaccines used in the U.S., passed extensive safety testing before and after being approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The vaccines
have a safety profile similar to that of other vaccines approved for adolescents in the U.S. Internationally, the safety of HPV vaccines has been tested and approved by the World Health Organization’s Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety. CDC recommends that boys and girls receive three doses of HPV vaccine at ages 11 or 12 years. The HPV vaccine series can be started in preteens as early as age 9 and should be completed before the 13th birthday. The HPV vaccine is more effective the earlier it is given; however, it is also recommended for young women until age 26 and young men until age 21.The low vaccination rates are alarming given our current ability to safely and effectively save lives by preventing HPV infection
and its associated cancers. Therefore, we urge parents and health care providers to protect the health of our children through a number of actions:

  • We encourage all parents and guardians to have their sons and daughters complete the 3-dose HPV vaccine series before the 13th birthday, and complete the series as soon as possible in children aged 13 to 17. Parents and guardians should talk to their health care provider to learn more about HPV vaccines and their benefits.
  • We encourage young men (up to age 21) and young women (up to age 26), who were not vaccinated as preteens or teens, to complete the 3-dose HPV vaccine series to protect themselves against HPV.
  • We encourage all health care providers to be advocates for cancer prevention by making strong recommendations for childhood HPV vaccination. We ask providers to join forces to educate parents/guardians and colleagues about the importance and benefits of HPV vaccination. HPV vaccination is our best defense in stopping HPV infection  in our youth and preventing HPV-related cancers in our communities. The HPV vaccine is CANCER PREVENTION. More information is available from the CDC.

*This news story was resourced by the Oral Cancer Foundation, and vetted for appropriateness and accuracy.

 

February, 2016|Oral Cancer News|

A cancer on the rise, and the vaccine too late for Gen X

Source: www.cnn.com
Author: Martha Shade
 
151014135224-generation-x-hpv-graphic-exlarge-169

(CNN)The vaccine given to prevent cervical cancer in women could end up saving men’s lives, too.

Evidence is mounting that the HPV vaccine is also effective in preventing other HPV-related cancers, including those of the head and neck. Although most people who get HPV do not develop cancer, rates of HPV-related head and neck cancers are dramatically rising for men aged 40 to 50, according to Dr. Maura L. Gillison, the Jeg Coughlin Chair of Cancer Research at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center.

When Gillison recently gave a presentation showing the increasing rate of HPV-related head and neck cancer among men, her audience was shocked. “I’ve never shown a slide where the audience gasps,” she said.

Related: Yes, oral sex can lead to cancer

“The risk of getting this cancer is strongly related to when you were born. If you are currently a 40- to 45-year-old man, your risk of getting this cancer is dramatically higher than a 40- to 45-year-old man three or four decades ago,” Gillison said.

Today’s 40- to 50-year-old men have had more sexual partners and have engaged in more oral sex than previous generations, according to experts, significantly raising their risk of an HPV-related head and neck cancer.

Actor Michael Douglas made headlines in 2013 when he announced he was battling an HPV-related cancer and that he got it from performing oral sex. Douglas was 68 when he was diagnosed, but many of the men being diagnosed with these HPV-related cancers are much younger.

What’s a Gen X’er to do?

HPV is usually acquired when young. It can lay dormant, and most oropharyngeal cancer (a type of head and neck cancer) is diagnosed decades later, beginning around age 40 to 50. And the more partners you have, the greater your risk.

HPV vaccines weren’t recommended and approved in the United States until 2006. And the vaccine was not even recommended for boys until 2011.

So what’s an aging Gen X’er to do?

“You’re starting to get colonoscopies; you’re starting to get checked for prostate cancer. This is one more thing to add to that list that you really have to watch for,” said Brian Hill, founder of the Oral Cancer Foundation.

Warning signs of HPV-related head and neck cancer

• Persistent lump on neck

• Persistent earache on one side

• Swelling or lump in the mouth

• Chronic sore throat

• Difficult or painful swallowing

• Change in voice

Source: Oral Cancer Foundation, Dr. Carole Fakhry

Symptoms of HPV-related head and neck cancer include a change in voice, a sore throat that doesn’t go away, an earache on one side and difficult or painful swallowing.

Hill’s story is typical: His doctors initially assumed he had an enlarged lymph node due to an infection. Two doctors gave him antibiotics before he was diagnosed with late-stage oropharyngeal cancer. His experience led him to form the Oral Cancer Foundation.

Finding the disease at an early stage is lifesaving. When it’s diagnosed early, these HPV-related cancers are survivable, according to Dr. Carole Fakhry of the Johns Hopkins Head & Neck Cancer Center. “If you have a lump in your neck, make sure to get checked.

“A very common story is: ‘I was shaving and I noticed this lump in my neck,” she said. “And he goes through two or three rounds of antibiotics and then someone finally thinks about cancer.”

‘Dental hygienists are becoming the best screeners’

Traditionally, cancers of the head and neck were often linked to alcohol or smoking, and these non-HPV cancers tend to be located at the front of the mouth and the voice box. Incidence of these cancers are dropping.

“The truth of the matter is that smoking-related cancers are declining,” Fakhry said. “On the other hand, cancers related to HPV are increasing.”

HPV-related cancers usually originate in the back of the mouth. “Most of these cancers are tonsils and back-of-tongue cancers,” she said. “Tonsils are basically these crypts, and tumors grow deep within these crypts, so these tumors can be hard to find.”

Since tumors are often hidden, dentists and dental hygienists are becoming the first line of attack. Men may also be more likely to visit a dentist regularly than a doctor, according to Hill.

“Dental hygienists are becoming the best screeners for this. They’re becoming the point at the end of the spear when it comes to screening and finding abnormalities,” he said.

Dentists and hygienists are encouraged to look for telltale signs of HPV-related cancer: asymmetrical or swollen tonsils, or a lesion in the back of the throat. But these cancers are notoriously tough to spot and tend to be diagnosed after patients develop a lump in the neck.

So what can you do?

“Make sure you get your kids vaccinated (for HPV),” Fakhry said.

Dr. Dan Beachler, lead author of a new study that found further evidence the HPV vaccine protects against multiple types of HPV-related cancers, agrees: “We still don’t know that much about oral HPV. Primary prevention through vaccination might have the most potential.”

Besides the cervix and the head and neck, some strains of HPV can also lead to cancer of the anus, penis and vulva.

A preventive HPV vaccine is most effective when given to children before they become exposed to HPV. The three dose series is recommended at age 11 or 12.

Initially recommended just for girls, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now recommends that boys be vaccinated, too. In addition, vaccination is recommended through the age of 26 in women and through age 21 in men who were not vaccinated previously.

“Young people do not avoid oral sex. That being a given, the best thing we can do is increase the vaccination rate. The second thing we can do is be highly aware of signs and symptoms,” Hill said.

And don’t panic. Although HPV-related cancers are on the rise, they’re still uncommon.

“Even though the rates are dramatically increasing, it’s still a relatively rare cancer. We don’t want to create a panic. We just want to raise awareness,” Gillison said.

Athletes drive increase in high schoolers’ use of smokless tobacco, CDC study shows

Source: www.kyforward.com
Author: www.kyforward.com web staff

Sept.-2015-100-percent-smoke-free-schools

High-school athletes are using more smokeless tobacco, even though overall tobacco use among high-school students has declined, according to a study published by the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

We can do more to protect America’s youth from a lifetime of addiction,” Tom Frieden, CDC director, said in a press release. “The fact is, smokeless tobacco products, such as chewing tobacco, snuff or dip, can cause cancer of the mouth, esophagus and pancreas. And the nicotine in these products is harmful to the developing brain. Because we know tobacco-free policies in schools and other public recreational areas work, we must take action now so that our children are safe from these toxins.”

Student responses to the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey from 2001 through 2013 show that the share reporting any tobacco use dropped to 22.4 percent from 33.9 percent, and the rate of those smoking combustible tobacco products dropped to 19.5 percent from 31.5 percent. However, those who reported using smokeless tobacco products increased to 8.8 percent from 8.2 percent.

The increased use of smokeless tobacco was driven by athletes. The rate among non-athletes remained unchanged at 5.9 percent but has “increased significantly” to 11.1 percent from 10 percent in youth athletes.

Researchers suggest that athletes are aware of the adverse consequences of smoking on athletic performance, but may view smokeless tobacco as “less harmful, socially acceptable, or even a way to enhance athletic performance.”

The 2013 YRBS found that 26.3 percent of Kentucky’s high school youth reported any use of tobacco; 17.9 percent were smoking cigarettes, and 13.2 percent reported using smokeless tobacco.

“Tobacco use among youth athletes is of particular concern because most adult tobacco users first try tobacco before age 18,” Brian King, deputy director for research translation in the CDC Office on Smoking and Health, said in a press release. “The younger people are when they start using tobacco, the more likely they are to become addicted and the more heavily addicted they can become.”

The reports calls for increased education about the dangers of smokeless tobacco; recognition that the tobacco industry pushes smokeless tobacco as an alternative to smoking where it is prohibited; that the role of professional athletes, many who use smokeless tobacco, must be part of the discussion because they are often considered role models by youth; and that “implementing and enforcing tobacco-free policies that prohibit all tobacco use on school campuses and at all public recreational facilities, including stadiums, parks, and school gymnasiums, by players, coaches, referees, and fans might help reduce tobacco use among student athletes.”

As of September, Kentucky had 47 school districts with comprehensive tobacco free policies. These policies cover 45 percent of Kentucky’s students and represents 27 percent of the school districts in the state, according to the Kentucky 100% Tobacco Free Schools website.

“Creating 100 percent tobacco-free environments is one of the best ways we can set our kids up for a healthy future,” U.S. Surgeon General Vivek H. Murthy said in the release. “It helps them see that being tobacco-free is the way to better health and a longer life.”

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*This news story was resourced by the Oral Cancer Foundation, and vetted for appropriateness and accuracy.

October, 2015|Oral Cancer News|