e-Cigarette Use Tied to Tobacco Use in Teenagers

Source: www.Medscape.comAuthor: Diana Swift e-Cigarette smoking appears to promote progression to traditional cigarette smoking and may be helping form a new population of smokers, according to a prospective study published online September 8 in JAMA Pediatrics. Brian A. Primack, MD, PhD, from the Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in Pennsylvania, and colleagues analyzed data on 694 young nonsmokers who were attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking at baseline. The very small proportion (2.3%) who already used e-cigarettes at baseline proved more likely to progress to smoking or to being open to it. The cohort, which was more than 75% non-Hispanic white, consisted of 374 females. The mean age of the 16 baseline e-cigarette users was 19.5 years compared with 20 years for nonusers. Study data came from waves 2 and 3 of the US-based Dartmouth Media, Advertising, and Health Study, a national survey of adolescents and young adults aged 16 to 26 years who were recruited via random digit dialing using landline (66.7%) and cellular (33.3%) telephone numbers. The survey, conducted from October 1, 2012, to May 1, 2014, started tracking e-cigarette use at wave 2 (2012 - 2013), which served as the baseline, whereas wave 3 (2013 - 2014) served as follow-up for the current study. Eligible participants had to be never-smokers and attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking at baseline. This was assessed with these questions: "If one of your friends offered you a cigarette, would you try it?" and "Do you think you will smoke a [...]

2016-02-10T17:34:33-07:00February, 2016|Oral Cancer News|

NCI-designated Cancer Centers Urge HPV Vaccination for the Prevention of Cancer

Source: www.medicine.wustl.eduAuthor: Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis Staff Approximately 79 million people in the United States are currently infected with a human papillomavirus (HPV) according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and 14 million new infections occur each year. Several types of high-risk HPV are responsible for the vast majority of cervical, anal, oropharyngeal (middle throat) and other genital cancers. The CDC also reports that each year in the U.S., 27,000 men and women are diagnosed with an HPV-related cancer, which amounts to a new case every 20 minutes. Even though many of these HPV-related cancers are preventable with a safe and effective vaccine, HPV vaccination rates across the U.S. remain low. Together we, a group of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)- designated Cancer Centers, recognize these low rates of HPV vaccination as a serious public health threat. HPV vaccination represents a rare opportunity to prevent many cases of cancer that is tragically underused. As national leaders in cancer research and clinical care, we are compelled to jointly issue this call to action. According to a 2015 CDC report, only 40 percent of girls and 21 percent of boys in the U.S. are receiving the recommended three doses of the HPV vaccine. This falls far short of the goal of 80 percent by the end of this decade, set forth by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Service’s Healthy People 2020 mission. Furthermore, U.S. rates are significantly lower than those of countries such as [...]

2016-02-04T12:35:06-07:00February, 2016|Oral Cancer News|

Federal goal is set to increase the amount of boys and girls vaccinated against HPV by 2020

Source: www. wsj.com (Wall Street Journal.com)Author: Caitlin McCabe Public-health officials are pushing for higher HPV vaccination rates amid growing evidence that cancers linked to the virus are afflicting more men. The National Cancer Institute announced recently it is pouring nearly $2.7 million into 18 U.S. cancer centers to boost HPV vaccinations among boys and girls. The cancer centers will work with local health clinics to set recommendations for vaccinating against the sexually transmitted infection, which in some cases can cause cancers in men and women later in life. HPV, or human papillomavirus, was considered a women’s-only issue, after researchers discovered a link between it and cervical cancer in the 1980s.  Now, as cervical-cancer rates are falling and oral-cancer rates in men steadily rise, “the burden of HPV cancer is shifting to men,” said Maura Gillison, a professor in the College of Medicine at Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center. Vaccination rates remain stifled, despite the availability of two vaccines that experts say provide effective coverage against cancer.  The Department of Health and Human Services’ goal is to boost HPV-vaccination rates to 80% by 2020—which is far higher than the 38% of girls and 14% of boys who completed the three-dose HPV vaccine last year, according to data from the National Immunization Survey of teenagers. Pediatricians say boosting those rates can be difficult. Pediatricians may feel uneasy talking to parents of young children about sexually transmitted infections, health experts say, while parents may resist the vaccine because they believe their child isn’t [...]

2014-11-12T11:39:19-07:00November, 2014|Oral Cancer News|

Oropharyngeal cancer patients with HPV have a more robust response to radiation therapy

Source: Eurekalert.org (SACRAMENTO, Calif.) — UC Davis cancer researchers have discovered significant differences in radiation-therapy response among patients with oropharyngeal cancer depending on whether they carry the human papillomavirus (HPV), a common sexually transmitted virus. The findings, published online today in The Laryngoscope Journal, could lead to more individualized radiation treatment regimens, which for many patients with HPV could be shorter and potentially less toxic. HPV-related cancers of the oropharynx (the region of the throat between the soft palate and the epiglottis, including the tonsils, base of tongue and uvula) have steadily increased in recent years, according to the National Cancer Institute, especially among men. At the same time, the incidence of oropharyngeal cancers related to other causes, such as smoking or alcohol consumption, is declining. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States; it can spread through direct skin-to-skin contact during vaginal, anal and oral sex. The UC Davis study, conducted by Allen Chen, associate professor in the UC Davis Department of Radiation Oncology, examined patterns of tumor reduction during radiation treatment in two otherwise similar groups of patients with oropharyngeal cancer: those who tested positive for HPV and those who tested negative for the virus. None of the HPV patients in the study was a smoker, a leading risk factor for the disease. Chen used CT scans acquired during image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and endoscopy (a tube with a small camera) to capture 3D images of the patients' tumors and monitor their treatment progress. [...]

2012-09-27T10:38:35-07:00September, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Robotic Surgery Through The Mouth Safe For Removing Tumors Of The Voice Box, Study Shows

Source: HealthCanal.com COLUMBUS, Ohio – Robotic surgery though the mouth is a safe and effective way to remove tumors of the throat and voice box, according to a study by head and neck cancer surgeons at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC – James). Dr. Enver Ozer This is the first report in the world literature illustrating the safety and efficacy of transoral robotic surgery for supraglottic laryngectomy, the researchers say. The preliminary study examined the outcomes of 13 head and neck cancer patients with tumors located in the region of the throat between the base of the tongue and just above the vocal cords, an area known as the supraglottic region. The study found that the use of robot-assisted surgery to remove these tumors through the mouth took about 25 minutes on average, and that blood loss was minimal – a little more than three teaspoons, or 15.4 milliliters, on average, per patient. No surgical complications were encountered and 11 of the 13 patients could accept an oral diet within 24 hours. If, on the other hand, these tumors are removed by performing open surgery on the neck, the operation can take around 4 hours to perform, require 7 to 10 days of hospitalization on average and require a tracheostomy tube and a stomach tube, the researchers say. The findings were published recently in the journal Head and Neck. “The transoral robotic technique means shorter [...]

2012-09-26T09:38:37-07:00September, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Perspectives on Coping Among Patients With Head and Neck Cancer Receiving Radiation

Source: MedScape News Today Abstract and Introduction Abstract Purpose/Objectives: To describe coping among patients with laryngeal and oropharyngeal cancer during definitive radiation with or without chemotherapy. Research Approach: Qualitative content analysis conducted within a larger study. Setting: Two radiation oncology outpatient clinics in Baltimore, MD. Participants: 21 patients with oropharyngeal or laryngeal cancer. Methodologic Approach: Interviews with open-ended questions were conducted during treatment. Questions covered topics such as coping during treatment, treatment-related issues, and resources. Main Research Variables: Coping, treatment, and coping resources. Findings: Patients' self-assessments suggested they were coping or that coping was rough or upsetting. Issues that required coping varied over four time points. Physical side effects were problematic during and one month after treatment completion. Patients used coping to manage the uncertainties of physical and psychological aspects of their experience. Family and friend support was a common coping strategy used by patients, with the intensity of side effects corresponding with the support provided across time points. Conclusions: Findings confirm previous research, but also provide new information about ways in which patients with head and neck cancer cope with their illness experience. Emergent themes provide insight into patients' feelings, issues, and assistance received with coping. Interpretation: Patients with head and neck cancer need education on the amount and severity of side effects and should be appraised of potential difficulties with scheduling, driving, and other logistic issues. Patients also should be informed of helpful types of support and coping strategies. Additional research is needed to expand the findings related [...]

2012-06-27T10:08:59-07:00June, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Darwin’s Principles Say Cancer Will Always Evolve to Resist Treatment

Source: ScienceDaily.com According to researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center, cancer is subject to the evolutionary processes laid out by Charles Darwin in his concept of natural selection. Natural selection was the process identified by Darwin by which nature selects certain physical attributes, or phenotypes, to pass on to offspring to better "fit" the organism to the environment. As applied to cancer, natural selection, a key principle of modern biology, suggests that malignancies in distinct "microhabitats" promote the evolution of resistance to therapies. However, these same evolutionary principles of natural selection can be applied to successfully manage cancer, say Moffitt researchers who published an opinion piece in a recent issue of Nature Reviews Cancer. "Understanding cancer as a disease starts with identifying crucial environmental forces and corresponding adaptive cellular strategies," said Robert A. Gatenby, M.D., chair of the Department of Diagnostic Imaging. "Cancer is driven by environmental selection forces that interact with individual cellular adaptive strategies." Cancer cell development, like any natural selection (or Darwinian) process, is governed by environmental selection forces and cellular adaptive strategies, the authors wrote. Investigating cancer and its proliferation through genetic changes and ignoring the adaptive landscape is most likely futile. Under "selective pressure" of chemotherapy, in this case the "adaptive landscape," resistant populations of cancer cells invariably evolve. The authors say that tumors can be thought of as "continents" populated by multiple cellular species that adapt to regional variations in environmental selection forces. Their strategy in offering this metaphor, they wrote, is to "integrate microenvironmental [...]

2012-06-22T12:53:19-07:00June, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

2009 Federal Tobacco Tax Increase Cut Number of Youth Smokers by At Least 220,000 in First Two Months Alone, New Study Shows

Source: TobaccoFreeKids.org WASHINGTON, DC – The large federal tobacco tax increase implemented on April 1, 2009, reduced the number of youth smokers by at least 220,000 and the number of youth smokeless tobacco users by at least 135,000 in the first two months alone, according to a new study released today by researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago. The researchers emphasized that the study measured only the immediate impact of the tax increase through May 2009, and the number of youth prevented from smoking and using smokeless tobacco would be much larger over time. The study "showed that a large national tax increase can influence youth tobacco use prevalence within a very short time period," the researchers wrote. "Adolescents not only respond to tax policy changes, but the speed of their response is fast. The prevalence of smoking and use of smokeless tobacco… dropped immediately following the tax increase in this study, and statistically significant and meaningful changes could be measured and detected within 30 days of the tax increase." The study was published online by the National Bureau of Economic Research and can be found at: http://www.nber.org/papers/w18026. The new study comes as the tobacco industry, led by Philip Morris USA and R.J. Reynolds, is spending nearly $40 million to oppose a June 5 ballot initiative in California (Proposition 29) to increase that state’s cigarette tax by $1 per pack. The initiative would reduce smoking and fund research on cancer and other tobacco-related diseases, as well as tobacco [...]

2012-05-11T10:58:27-07:00May, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Prognostic Significance of HPV Status in Oropharyngeal Cancer

OncologySTAT Editorial Team Dr. Maura Gillison is Professor of Medicine, Epidemiology, and Otolaryngology at Ohio State University in Columbus. OncologySTAT: The results of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0129 trial showed that the human papillomavirus (HPV) is an independent prognostic factor in oropharyngeal cancer. Could you tell us about the rationale for this study? Dr. Gillison: Over the last 10 years, our research has shown that cancers of the oropharynx are actually 2 completely different diseases that can look quite similar. One subset is caused HPV infection, and the other is more closely associated with long-term use of alcohol and tobacco. Initial studies suggested that the presence of HPV in a patient’s tumor had prognostic significance, but study limitations made that conclusion dubious. We set out to determine whether or not HPV was indeed an independent prognostic factor in head and neck cancer. To show whether there was a direct relationship between HPV infection and head and neck cancer, we needed to prospectively study a uniformly treated and uniformly staged patient population. Thus, we used the study population from the trial conducted by the RTOG. We divided the patients into 2 groups—those whose tumors were caused by HPV and those whose tumors were not—and we compared survival outcomes for the 2 groups. The results showed that HPV status was the single most important predictor of patient outcome, even more so than disease stage and other well-known prognostic factors such as performance status and presence of anemia. In fact, after [...]

2012-04-18T10:16:03-07:00April, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

HPV Vaccine Recommendation for Boys Viewed as Necessary

Source: OncLive.com  As the incidence of head and neck cancers linked to the human papillomavirus (HPV) continues to rise, a federal advisory panel has recommended that all 11- and 12-year-old boys be vaccinated against the virus, igniting further controversy in an area where acceptance of a public health policy has been slow. The recommendation from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) would expand the use of the vaccine beyond the original target population of 11- and 12-year-old girls for whom it is recommended as protection against cervical cancer. Ezra E. W. Cohen, MD, firmly supports the latest recommendation. “It’s the right move by the CDC,” he said in an interview. “I think it’s a long time coming.” Cohen said that the fact that the original recommendations targeted cervical cancer created a cultural perception that the vaccine was only intended for girls. Yet the HPV virus affects men as well. According to the CDC, HPV is associated with about 18,000 cancers in women and 7000 cancers in men each year. Overall, the incidence of HPV-positive oropharynx cancers increased by 225% between 1988 and 2004, according to National Cancer Institute research. There were an estimated 6700 cases of HPV-positive oropharynx cancers in 2010, up from 4000 to 4500 in 2004. Cohen said he believes such numbers are going to continue to rise. Even by taking proactive steps in 2011, the vaccine is only intended for children and young adults. HPV that is already [...]

2012-04-18T10:05:13-07:00April, 2012|Oral Cancer News|
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