A shift in focus for head and neck cancer treatment

Source: www.curetoday.com Author: Marijke Vroomen Durning, RN When Cindy Stemple of Westerville, Ohio, noticed a sore on her tongue, the last thing she imagined was that she may have head and neck cancer. After all, she was only 27 years old. She finally went to see her dentist when the sore wouldn’t heal. Since Stemple didn’t have any known risk factors for head and neck cancer, the dentist didn’t expect cancer either. After trying several treatments, they decided it was time for a biopsy. Stemple still wasn’t concerned. “It wasn’t even in the realm of possible things,” she says. “I didn’t even take anybody to the appointment when I got the results and found out it was cancer because it was the furthest thing from my mind.” She received a diagnosis of stage 3 oral squamous cell carcinoma — which is a cancer that occurs in the mouth and/or throat. Tremendous Change in Head and Neck Cancer Historically, head and neck cancer, the seventh most common cancer globally, was predominantly diagnosed in older individuals and was often linked to tobacco and alcohol use. As smoking rates began to decline, so did tobacco- and alcohol-related cases among older individuals. But head and neck cancer rates began rising in another group — younger and middle-aged adults — driven by HPV infections, predominantly HPV type 16, which has been shown to be a clear risk factor for head and neck cancer as well as cervical cancer. HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers in the United States [...]

2022-09-21T06:29:44-07:00September, 2022|Oral Cancer News|

Alcohol should have cancer warning labels, say doctors and researchers pushing to raise awareness of risk

Source: www.cbc.ca Author: Ioanna Roumeliotis & Brenda Witmer · CBC News It's not a secret, but it may as well be. Few Canadians know the truth, and few may want to hear it: alcohol, any amount of alcohol, can cause cancer. There is no safe amount, and the calls to inform Canadians are growing. "Even drinking one drink a day increases your risk of some cancers — including, if you're a woman, breast cancer — but also cancers of the digestive system, the mouth, stomach," said Tim Stockwell, a senior scientist with the Canadian Institute for Substance Use Research at the University of Victoria. "The risk increases with every drink you take." Alcohol has been classified as a Group 1 carcinogen (carcinogenic to humans) for decades by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). It's right up there with tobacco and asbestos. Alcohol is also a top cause of preventable cancer after smoking and obesity. But the vast majority of Canadians have no idea of the risk. Stockwell wants to change that, and he and other health experts are advocating for cancer warning labels on alcohol containers. People need to know, he says, that though there are other genetic and lifestyle factors that contribute to developing cancer, every drink comes with a risk. "The risk from alcohol, it's a dose response. The bigger and more frequent the dose, the higher your risk." Kathy Andrews had no idea that the wine she enjoyed most nights before she got pregnant was [...]

The ‘big three’ causes of mouth cancer

Source: www.hippocraticpost.com Author: staff By knowing the causes of mouth cancer, we can take positive steps to reduce our own level of risk, says a leading health charity. The Oral Health Foundation is raising awareness about the causes of mouth cancer, following new research that shows far too many people remain unaware of the main risk factors. The number of people diagnosed with mouth cancer in the UK has doubled in the last 20 years, with tobacco, drinking alcohol to excess and the human papillomavirus, being the considered the most common causes. However, new data shows that awareness into the three big risk factors is as low as 15%. With more than half of all mouth cancer cases linked to lifestyle factors, the charity along with Denplan, part of Simplyhealth, are using November’s Mouth Cancer Action Month to shed light on the biggest risks factors associated with the disease. Tobacco Smoking tobacco increases your risk of developing mouth cancer by up to ten times. This includes smoking cigarettes, pipes or cigars. Around two-in-three mouth cancers are linked to smoking. Dr Nigel Carter, Chief Executive of the Oral Health Foundation says: “Despite the number of smokers continuing to fall, it remains the leading cause of mouth cancer. Our focus must be on providing smokers with the support and information they need in order to kick tobacco for good. It’s never too late to quit and by making this positive step, the health of your mouth and body will see both instant [...]

2021-12-22T13:06:29-07:00December, 2021|Oral Cancer News|

Detecting suspicious lesions: what do I say next?

Source: dentistry.co.uk Author: Philip Lewis Dental team members are amazing. They put patients at their ease and provide treatment for their dental issues. They improve smiles, boost self-confidence and they save lives. Yes, you read that right. There aren’t many opportunities for dental team members to be lifesavers. Detecting mouth cancer at an early stage is one of them. It’s an initiative for the whole dental team. Both clinical and non-clinical team members have a vital part to play. From a receptionist noticing changes in a patient’s voice, a practice manager spotting a swelling they haven’t seen before to a clinician picking up on a soft-tissue abnormality, we all get the chance to be pivotal in protecting a patient’s wellbeing. Risk factors We know there are risk factors we should be aware of: the use of tobacco in any form, regular use of alcohol, especially spirits, social deprivation with its associated problems of nutrition and vitamin deficiency. It is understood that increasing age is a factor and that men are more likely than women to get the disease. We appreciate the significant effects of infection that certain strains of HPV have had recently but realise how important it is to examine all adults. Many sufferers have no identifiable risk factors. During the clinical examination, we’ll be looking for anything unusual, including: Red, white or mixed patches Ulcers that don’t heal within a maximum of three weeks Swellings Changes to normal appearance or texture and lumps in the face or neck [...]

2021-11-19T07:02:03-07:00November, 2021|Oral Cancer News|

Patterns of care for incarcerated head and neck cancer patient receiving radiation: a single-center retrospective descriptive cohort study

Source: www.docwirenews.com Author: DocWire News Abstract: Purpose/Objective(s): United States (US) have the highest incarceration rate in the world. In the context of the US justice system, many inmates are older than 55 years of age and as such are at an increased risk of cancer development. Additionally, largely due to mass incarcerations, correctional control is associated with significant racial disparities, further layering the complexity of the prison population’s health. The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of care in incarcerated head and neck (H&N) cancer patients who received radiation treatment (RT) as a part of the management of their malignancy. Materials/Methods: Following IRB approval, a total of 44 charts of patients who were imprisoned for at least a part of their radiation treatment were manually reviewed. The variables extracted included demographic data (age, race, gender), vital status, tumor site, stage, social history, cancer history, RT purpose, RT plan details (start, end, duration, dose, fractionation, completion as prescribed, concurrent systemic treatment), weight loss, surveillance (loss to follow-up) and oncologic outcomes (tumor recurrence.) Data was summarized using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 41/44 inmates were males (93%), 13/44 (29.5%) were African American. Median age at diagnosis was 49.5 years (range 27-68). A total of 21/44 tumors (47%) were oropharyngeal tumors, followed by 9 laryngeal tumors (20%). A total of 41 patients (93%) had a previous smoking history (median 20 pack years), and 30 (68%) had documented history of alcohol abuse. Most common treatment purpose was post-operative (47%) followed by [...]

Study: HPV vaccination will reduce throat and mouth cancers, but overall impact will take 25-plus years to see

Source: www.newswise.com Author: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Vaccinations against human papillomavirus (HPV), a major cause of throat and back of mouth cancers, are expected to yield significant reductions in the rates of these cancers in the U.S., but will not do so until after 2045, according to a new modeling study from researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infectious virus worldwide. HPV infections are often silent, and while most infections clear, some are chronic and can trigger cancers including mouth and throat (oropharyngeal), and cervical cancer because they disrupt DNA and inhibit tumor-suppressor proteins in the cells they infect. Although there is no cure for existing HPV infections, new infections are preventable with vaccines, the first of which entered use in the U.S. in 2006. In the new study, the Bloomberg School researchers analyzed national databases on oropharyngeal cancer cases and HPV vaccinations, and projected the impact of HPV vaccination on the rates of these cancers in different age groups. They estimated that the oropharyngeal cancer rate would nearly halve between 2018 and 2045 among people ages 36–45. However, they also projected that the rate in the overall population would stay about the same from 2018-2045, due to still-rising rates of these cancers in older people, where most of these cancers occur. The study appears online September 2 in JAMA Oncology. “We estimate that most of the oropharyngeal cancers from 2018 to 2045 will occur among [...]

2021-09-03T12:26:37-07:00September, 2021|Oral Cancer News|

Study: Secondhand smoke exposure significantly increases risk of developing mouth cancer

Source: www.studyfinds.org Author: Stephen Beech, SWNS writer When most people think about the dangers of smoking, they probably consider the risks of cancer for the smoker. Although it’s common knowledge secondhand smoke is also dangerous, a new study is revealing just how devastating that exposure can be. Researchers say exposure to secondhand smoke can increase the risk of oral cancer by a staggering 51 percent. Oral cancer, or cancers of the mouth, include those affecting the lip, oral cavity, and throat. These cancers account for almost 450,000 new disease cases and more than 228,000 deaths every year globally. Scientists say that significant risk factors for these forms of cancer include tobacco smoking and use of smokeless tobacco products. Drinking alcohol can also increase the risk of oral cancer. Tobacco smoke represents the largest amount of human exposure to chemical carcinogens and causes a fifth of cancer-related deaths worldwide. However, active smokers are not the only people who suffer from these chemicals. Researchers examining data from 192 countries find 33 percent of male non-smokers, 35 percent of female non-smokers, and 40 percent of children have experienced exposure to involuntary smoking through inhaling secondhand tobacco smoke. Previous research also shows that inhaling secondhand smoke can cause several other diseases, including lung cancer. Although tobacco smoking can cause oral cancer, there is less evidence proving whether or not secondhand smoke also leads to the disease. Long-term smoke exposure doubles cancer risks A team from Britain, Portugal, Spain, and the United States evaluated the [...]

Addressing unmet needs for head and neck cancer awareness month

Source: www.targetedonc.com Author: Sara Karlovitch Head and neck cancers, also known as squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, account for nearly 50,000 cases of cancer per year in the United States. April is head and neck cancer month. According to the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), alcohol and tobacco use are major risk factors for developing head and neck cancers. However, infection with the cancer-causing types of the human papillomavirus (HPV) also increases the risk for certain forms of the cancer, as well as eating preserved or salted foods, poor oral hygiene, occupational exposure to wood dust, asbestos, and synthetic fibers, radiation exposure, and Epstein-Barr virus infection in endemic regions, including southeast Asia. Head and neck cancers are more common among men than women. Additionally, most patients who are diagnosed with this type of cancer are 50 years or older. Symptoms include a lump or sore on that does not go away or heal, difficulty swallowing, changes in voice, or a sore throat that does not resolve or heal. Trials such as the KEYNOTE-048 study (NCT02358031), which investigated the use of pembrolizumab (Keytruda) as a first line treatment for recurrent or metastatic squamous cell cancer of the head and neck, have changed how head and neck cancers are treated. While many patients recover, many are still affected by life-long disabilities as the result of their disease and treatment. Stuart J. Wong, MD, a medical oncologist, professor, and director of the Center for Disease Prevention Research at the [...]

How much does drinking alcohol contribute to US cancer burden?

Source: www.medscape.com Author: Kristin Jenkins The first study to estimate the alcohol-related cancer burden on a state-by-state basis provides more evidence that the drinking habits of Americans account for a "considerable" proportion of cancer diagnoses and deaths, researchers say. "In the United States, on average, alcohol consumption accounts for 4.8% of cancer cases and 3.2% of cancer deaths," concludes Farhad Islami, MD, PhD, of the American Cancer Society (ACS) and colleagues. However, the proportion was higher for specific cancer types, with alcohol consumption accounting for an estimated 12.1% of female breast cancers, 11.1% of colorectal, 10.5% of liver, and 7.7% of esophageal cancers, the study showed. In addition, in 46 states, alcohol accounted for ≥ 45% of oral cavity/pharyngeal and ≥ 25% of laryngeal cancer diagnoses. The study was published online January 19 in Cancer Epidemiology. "Implementing state-level policies and cancer control efforts to reduce alcohol consumption could reduce this cancer burden," the researchers comment. They noted that restrictive policies on alcohol sales are associated with a reduction in cancer mortality rates and that a recent study showed increasing alcohol controls by 10% was associated with an 8.3% relative decrease in the oropharyngeal cancer mortality rate. Separating Drinking From Smoking The study is also one of a growing number to evaluate alcohol consumption and cancer risk in nonsmokers, said Mary Beth Terry, PhD, professor of epidemiology at Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, when approached for comment. "This is important because the much larger effects of [...]

Artificial intelligence being trained to predict risk of developing oral cancer

Source: thestreetjournal.org Author: staff, NHS The diagnosis of oral cancer could be ‘revolutionised’ by using artificial intelligence to predict whether someone is likely to develop the disease, experts have said. Experts led from the Universities of Sheffield and Warwick have teamed up to investigate how machine learning could be applied to aid doctors in early detection. Diagnoses of oral cancers — including those of the mouth, tongue and tonsils — have increased by almost 60 per cent over the last decade, team noted. The risk of such cancers is heightened by such factors as alcohol consumption, increasing age, insufficient fruit and vegetables, tobacco and viral infection. Doctors evaluate the likelihood of pre-cancerous changes in the lining of the mouth — so-called oral epithelial dysplasia — developing into cancer using 15 criteria. As this approach is highly subjective, however, there is considerable variation in how patients are treated following biopsy — and a more objective system is needed. The diagnosis of oral cancer could be ‘revolutionised’ by using artificial intelligence to predict whether someone is likely to develop the disease, experts have said. ‘The precise grading of oral epithelial dysplasia is a huge diagnostic challenge, even for experienced pathologists, as it is so subjective,’ said clinical dentist Ali Khurram of the University of Sheffield. ‘At the moment a biopsy may be graded differently by different pathologists, the same pathologist may even grade the same biopsy differently on a different day.’ ‘Correct grading is vital in early oral cancer detection to inform [...]

2020-11-04T12:05:12-07:00November, 2020|Oral Cancer News|
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