nicotine

Need another reason not to vape? Your oral health is at risk

Source: www.health24.com
Author: Healthday staff

The warnings about vaping – inhaling the vapour of electronic cigarettes – tend to focus on the potential dangers to the heart and lungs. But an increasing amount of research shows the chemicals in e-cigarettes start to inflict damage right where they enter the body: your mouth.

Because e-cigarettes are a recent phenomenon, said Dr Crystal Stinson, assistant professor at Texas A&M College of Dentistry in Dallas, “Studies on their impact are really new. But now we have a solid amount of evidence that shows the link between e-cigarettes and poor oral health.”

Nicotine, whether smoked or vaped, restricts blood flow to the gums, which can contribute to periodontal disease. The fluid in e-cigarettes, which can include propylene glycol, benzene, formaldehyde and other chemicals, only increases the risks.

Irreversible issues
A study published earlier this year in the journal iScience showed that 43% of people using e-cigarettes had gum disease and oral infections. That figure was higher among smokers – 73% – but only 28% among people who neither smoked nor vaped.

“The oral cavity is really resilient tissue that heals faster than other parts of the body,” Stinson said. “But we also know that when you repeatedly traumatise it, that’s when you end up having issues that are irreversible.”

Those issues, she added, range from inflammation and tooth cavities to loss of bone that anchors teeth to the jaw, called periodontitis, and oral cancer.

Another study published in May in Science Advances concluded the oral microbiome – the vast collection of friendly bacteria, viruses and other microbes that live in the mouth – of e-cigarette users without gum disease looked a lot like the microbiome of people with periodontitis.

“It’s absolutely scary stuff,” said Dr Purnima Kumar, professor at the Ohio State University College of Dentistry and the study’s senior author. “E-cigarettes stress the bacterial communities that live in your mouth, and they encase themselves in slime. So they’re no longer good bacteria and the inflammatory response is through the roof. People are walking around thinking they’re healthy, but they are just primed for disease.”

‘We’ve just scratched the surface’
Oral health is a critical element of whole-body health. Two preliminary studies presented in February at the American Stroke Association’s International Stroke Conference linked gum disease with a higher rate of strokes caused by hardening of large arteries in the brain and also with severe artery blockages. A 2018 study in the American Heart Association journal Hypertension found that gum disease appears to worsen high blood pressure and interferes with medications to treat hypertension.

Last December, the American Dental Association issued a statement urging a ban on e-cigarettes not approved by the Food and Drug Administration to help people quit smoking, as well as more research on the effects of vaping on oral health.

“We’ve just scratched the surface,” Kumar said. “We know it’s detrimental. We need to start looking at which chemical components of vape really cause this, why does it cause this, how long does it take to start, and how long does the body need to recover once you quit.”

Not enough time has passed since vaping became popular to assess the long-term dangers, Stinson said. “Unfortunately, everybody’s an experiment right now.”

But Stinson doesn’t need to wait for more studies to be convinced of the dangers of vaping. One look inside a vaper’s mouth usually tells the story.

More cavities
“Periodontal disease is normally an adult disease, and we’re seeing it in younger people,” she said. “Younger people normally have more saliva than they need, so when they present with dry mouth, periodontal disease or increased complaints of mouth ulcers, our next question is, ‘Do you vape?’ These symptoms are all tied to components in e-cigarettes.”

She also notices more cavities in her younger patients who vape, which she believes may be due to the acidity of the components in vape liquid and an increase in cavity-causing bacteria.

Stinson attributes the high rate of nicotine dependence to the sweet flavourings that helped attract adolescents to e-cigarettes. In February, the FDA banned many flavoured e-cigarettes in hopes of reducing the rise in vaping among young people, but health experts fear many are already hooked on nicotine.

“Phasing out the flavours is going to help, but we still have a population that is struggling to let go of the habit,” she said.

Both Stinson and Kumar are involved in education and cessation programmes aimed at convincing young people not to start vaping and helping those who do to stop.

‘It’s not a vapour’
The first lesson: Don’t be fooled into thinking that what looks like steam is a safe alternative to cigarette smoke.

“You hear ‘vapour’ and you think steam facials or a tea kettle,” Kumar said. “It’s not a vapour. It’s an aerosol, like hairspray or what you use to kill ants and cockroaches. When I teach young kids, I take little cans of hairspray and say, ‘I want you to spray this in your mouth.’

“They say, ‘Ew, no.’ So, I say, ‘Then why would you vape?'”

September, 2020|Oral Cancer News|

Vaping e-cigarettes could increase the risk of oral disease, study finds

Source: technology.inquirer.net
Author: staff

New American research has found that individuals who use e-cigarettes could be at risk of developing oral diseases in the future, which could range from gum disease to cancer.

Carried out by researchers at The Ohio State University, the new study looked at a group of 123 people with no signs of oral disease. The group included 25 smokers, 25 non-smokers, 20 e-cigarette users, 25 former tobacco smokers who used e-cigarettes and 28 people who smoked both tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes.

The team collected plaque samples taken from under the gums of the participants to analyze the bacteria in this part of the mouth; bacteria here is the last line of defense against disease as it is the least likely to be disrupted by environmental changes in the mouth, such as food, toothpaste and tobacco.

The researchers then carried out DNA deep sequencing of the bacteria’s genomes to identify what types of microbes were living in participants’ mouths and what their functions were.

The findings, published in the journal Science Advances, showed that although the e-cigarette users didn’t have signs of active disease, their oral bacteria composition was similar to that of people with severe periodontitis, a severe gum infection that can lead to health problems such as tooth loss, and, if left untreated, is a risk factor for serious conditions such as heart and lung disease.

The effect of e-cigarette smoking was also seen with or without nicotine, which the researchers say suggests that it is the heated and pressurized liquids in e-cigarette cartridges that are making vapers’ mouths a welcoming environment for a dangerous combination of microbes.

Even long-term current and former cigarette smokers had worse oral profiles linked to using e-cigarettes after just three to 12 months of vaping.

“Vaping is such a big assault on the oral environment, and the change happens dramatically and over a short period of time,” said Purnima Kumar, senior author of the study.

“If you stop smoking and start vaping instead, you don’t move back toward a healthy bacterial profile but shift up to the vaping profile,” Kumar explains. “Knowing the vaping profile is pathogen-rich, you’re not doing yourself any favors by using vaping to quit smoking.”

The researchers say this is the first human study on the effects of e-cigarette exposure in the mouth, and like previous research into e-cigarettes, also questions their safety.

Another vaping hazard: less-healthy mouths

Source: www.usnews.com/
Author: Serena Gordon, HealthDay Reporter

Your lungs might not be your only concern if you’re trying electronic cigarettes — your mouth may pay the price, too. Vaping alters the natural bacteria found in the mouth, leaving you more vulnerable to oral infections and inflammation, a new study reports.

The researchers said this study is the first to show that vaping can alter the natural balance of beneficial bacteria (microbiome) in the mouth, adding to the list of potential health effects associated with e-cigarette use.

“Cells that are exposed to e-cigarettes are more susceptible to infections,” said the study’s senior author, Deepak Saxena. He’s a professor of basic science and craniofacial biology at NYU College of Dentistry in New York City.

Saxena said that e-cigarettes also lead to increased inflammation, which harms oral health. And once someone develops inflammation, it’s possible to develop white patches in the mouth called leukoplakia that sometimes develop into cancer. However, this study doesn’t have enough long-term evidence to show whether or not these changes could lead to oral cancers in the future, Saxena said.

“Our study is just one piece of this big puzzle on e-cigarettes, and I would advise people to not use them. If you have not started, don’t start. Nicotine is highly addictive,” he said.

A U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report from November suggested that as many as one out of every five U.S. high school students had vaped in the last month. That’s especially concerning since more than 2,500 Americans have been hospitalized with lung injuries traced back to e-cigarette use. An additive sometimes used when people vape is suspected as a trigger for these injuries. Fifty-four people have died as a result.

People who smoke traditional tobacco cigarettes are known to have a higher risk of gum disease and oral infections. Tobacco causes changes in the mouth’s usual environment that dampen the immune system response and let bad bacteria flourish, the researchers explained.

E-cigarettes have been considered less harmful, but there hasn’t been a lot of research, particularly long-term studies on the new devices.

For the new study, the research team recruited 119 participants, including roughly equal numbers of people who didn’t smoke or vape, people who smoked tobacco cigarettes, and those who had only used e-cigarettes. The researchers performed oral exams and collected saliva samples to test for the bacteria living in the participants’ mouths.

Almost three-quarters of tobacco smokers showed signs of gum disease or infection. Forty-three percent of e-cigarettes users also showed signs of these problems. Only 28% of the nonsmokers had signs of gum disease or infection.

When they tested for bacteria, the researchers found different types of predominant bacteria in the three groups.

“We found there is a shift in the microbiome of e-cigarette users, making it much closer to that of regular cigarette smokers,” Saxena said.

Co-author Xin Li, an associate professor at NYU College of Dentistry, noted that the researchers can’t say if e-cigarettes are more dangerous for oral health than traditional tobacco cigarettes.

“We saw a similar trend to inflammation and periodontitis (a serious gum infection), but I don’t think we can draw any conclusions about whether e-cigarettes are more harmful,” she said.

If you vape and have concerns about these potential changes, Saxena suggested taking greater care with your oral health and perhaps seeing your dentist more frequently. Li said maybe probiotics can help restore the microbiome in the mouth. But both noted these steps haven’t been studied yet.

Li said if you are using e-cigarettes to help with quitting traditional tobacco cigarettes, try to use e-cigarettes for the shortest time you can. Plan on how you’ll cut back. Don’t plan to use e-cigarettes indefinitely, she advised.

Ronald Burakoff is chairman of dental medicine at Long Island Jewish Medical Center and North Shore University Hospital in New York. He said the study’s findings make sense.

“This article describes in detail some of the adverse outcomes associated with [e-cigarette] usage. Firstly, it increases the amount of bacteria in the mouth; secondly, it promotes inflammation of the gums,” Burakoff said. He added that these changes could lead to an increased risk of infection.

Note: The study was published online Feb. 26 in iScience.

February, 2020|Oral Cancer News|

E-cig users develop some of the same cancer-related molecular changes as cigarette smokers

Source: EurekAlert!
Date: February 14, 2019

If you think vaping is benign, think again.

A small USC study shows that e-cig users develop some of the same cancer-related molecular changes in oral tissue as cigarette smokers, adding to the growing concern that e-cigs aren’t a harmless alternative to smoking.

The research, published this week in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, comes amid a mushrooming e-cig market and mounting public health worries. On a positive note, recent research found vaping is almost twice as effective as other nicotine replacement therapies in helping smokers quit.

But among adolescents, vaping now surpasses smoking, and there’s evidence that e-cig use leads to nicotine addiction and future smoking in teens.

“The existing data show that e-cig vapor is not merely ‘water vapor’ as some people believe,” said Ahmad Besaratinia, an associate professor at Keck School of Medicine of USC and the study’s senior author. “Although the concentrations of most carcinogenic compounds in e-cig products are much lower than those in cigarette smoke, there is no safe level of exposure to carcinogens.”

Besaratinia emphasized that the molecular changes seen in the study aren’t cancer, or even pre-cancer, but rather an early warning of a process that could potentially lead to cancer if unchecked.

The researchers looked at gene expression in oral cells collected from 42 e-cig users, 24 cigarette smokers and 27 people who didn’t smoke or vape. Gene expression is the process by which instructions in our DNA are converted into a functional product, such as a protein. Certain alterations in gene expression can lead to cancer.

They focused on oral epithelial cells, which line the mouth, because over 90 percent of smoking-related cancers originate in epithelial tissue, and oral cancer is associated with tobacco use.

Both smokers and vapers showed abnormal expression, or deregulation, in a large number of genes linked to cancer development. Twenty-six percent of the deregulated genes in e-cig users were identical to those found in smokers. Some deregulated genes found in e-cig users, but not in smokers, are nevertheless implicated in lung cancer, esophageal cancer, bladder cancer, ovarian cancer and leukemia.

Besaratinia and his team plan to replicate his findings in a larger group of subjects and explore the mechanisms that cause gene deregulation. He’s also launching another experiment in which smokers switch to e-cigs; he wants to see whether any changes in gene regulation occur after the switch.

“For the most part, the participants are as curious as we are to know whether these products are safe,” he said.

In addition to Besaratinia, the study’s other authors are first author Stella Tommasi, Andrew Caliri, Amanda Caceres, Debra Moreno, Meng Li, Yibu Chen and Kimberly Siegmund, all of USC.

The research was supported by grants from the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research of the National Institutes of Health (1R01DE026043) and the University of California Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program (TRDRP-25IP-0001 and TRDRP-26IR-0015).

February, 2019|Oral Cancer News|

Tobacco 21 — its time has come

Source: vtdigger.org
Author: Nevin Zablotsky, DMD

As we approach the holiday season I am reminded of the gifts of love we share with our families, as well as the New Year’s resolutions we make and try to keep after Jan. 1 history.

I am a periodontist having practiced in Burlington and South Burlington for the past 40 years. In that time I have treated patients that have been severely compromised by tobacco. Some have lost teeth from advanced periodontal disease and some have lost parts of their tongue and jaw due to oral cancer, leaving them significantly compromised functionally as well as well as emotionally. I have had to advise teenagers and their families that their tobacco chewing habit had caused significant enough changes in their mouth to warrant a biopsy of the involved area. This caused great stress to them as they waited a week to find out the results. Some may think that it takes many years for tobacco use to compromise one’s health, but teenagers can die a horrible death from tobacco use if they are one of the unlucky ones who is genetically predisposed to oral cancer.

Over the years, I have traveled throughout Vermont teaching about tobacco and nicotine addiction to elementary, junior and senior high school students. I feel that I have a good sense of what kids are thinking about these subjects. The elementary school students seem to understand that cigarettes are bad for them. When one talks to the middle school kids, there are some that are beginning to think that cigarettes and smokeless tobacco use is cool, and when speaking to high school students, there is a larger percentage of them that have begun to use a variety of these products, ranging from cigarettes and cigars, to hookahs, to a variety of e-cigarettes, with the newest product, Juul, going viral. This product has become so much of a problem local schools have sent letters to parents warning them of its sudden increase in usage .

It is legal for anyone over 18 to purchase all of these tobacco and nicotine products. Here are some facts to chew on.

About 95 percent of adult smokers begin smoking before they turn 21. Two-thirds of 10th grade students and nearly half of eighth grade students say it is easy to get cigarettes. More 18- and 19-year-olds using in high school means younger kids have daily contact with students who can legally purchase tobacco products.

I am often told that when one reaches the age of 18 they are mature enough to vote, or join the military, so therefore they are mature enough to decide on using tobacco products.

Tobacco use costs the military about $1.6 billion annually in lost productivity and health care expenses tied to respiratory problems, cardiovascular disease and slower healing, according to the Department of Defense data. That’s expected to climb to $19 billion during the next 10 years and result in 175,000 premature deaths. The Air Force bans tobacco in recreation facilities, and the Navy banned tobacco on all submarines. The Vermont National Guard also stated that they would abide by Tobacco 21 legislation if it passed, again citing readiness and fitness.

An argument has been made that tobacco retailers’ businesses will be irreparably harmed if tobacco 21 is implemented. Studies show that its impact over the first 5-8 years will be between one quarter and one half of a percent.

Vermont law does not allow the sale of alcohol to anyone under 21, and the new marijuana law passed last year also restricts its usage to those over 21. Given the proven health risks of tobacco use, why does the present law allow tobacco usage at age 18?

It has been calculated that 10,000 kids now under 18 and alive in Vermont will ultimately die prematurely from the smoking habit they began in their teenage years.

Six states have passed tobacco 21 legislation. This includes Massachusetts and Maine, with New York likely to join this group. Do we really want kids coming from our surrounding states coming here to get their cigarettes or e-cigarettes?

Even Altria and R.J. Reynolds, two of the largest tobacco companies in the world have stated that the age of sale should be 21.

So as we approach the new year I want to appeal to our representatives, to resolve to pass tobacco 21 in the 2019 legislative session, and remind them about how much suffering they can prevent. The decisions they make will have major consequences for generations to come. What a great resolution to keep. What a great holiday gift for us all.

Note: This commentary is by Nevin Zablotsky, DMD, a retired periodontist who practiced in South Burlington and the Coalition for a Tobacco Free Vermont.

December, 2018|Oral Cancer News|

Forms of tobacco that give you cancer

Source: www.medicalnewstoday.com
Author: Zawn Villines, reviewed by Philip Gregory, PharmD, MS

Nicotine is the primary substance in cigarettes that causes addiction, but most experts agree that it does not directly cause cancer.

Most research points to cigarette smoke, not nicotine, as being the primary contributor to cancer among smokers. However, although most experts agree that nicotine does not directly cause cancer, some research suggests that nicotine may lead to a type of DNA damage that increases the risk of cancer.

Research from 2015 reported in the Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology suggests that nicotine may increase the risk of cancer because it might damage DNA, initiate cancer and cause it to progress faster, and interact with cancer-causing chemicals.

Research into the role of nicotine in cancer is ongoing. Many studies, however, do not differentiate between nicotine, tobacco, or smoking when they discuss cancer risk. This makes it difficult to determine which of them causes cancer.

Even if nicotine does cause or lead to cancer, the risks of developing cancer through the use of nicotine-only products are much lower than the risks from smoking.

Methods of consuming nicotine and their safety

Nicotine is addictive and is the primary reason most people smoke. However, almost every other nicotine-based product is safer than smoking. No nicotine replacement product is completely safe for all people, but some of the less harmful alternatives include:

Nicotine replacement therapy
A person with a heart condition should speak to a doctor before undergoing NRT.
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) refers to a group of treatments designed to help smokers quit. NRT is available in several forms, each of which delivers nicotine without smoke, tobacco, or other carcinogenic (cancer-causing) chemicals:

The following types of NRT are available over the counter:

  • a patch, which delivers nicotine through the skin
  • chewing gum, which allows a user to chew and swallow nicotine
  • a lozenge, which slowly dissolves and releases nicotine into the mouth

Two additional forms of NRT are available with a prescription:

  • an inhaler, which allows users to take in nicotine in a similar way to inhaling it from a cigarette
  • a nasal spray, which delivers nicotine through the nose

NRT poses some risks. In addition to nicotine’s potential link to cancer, it is also a stimulant. This may make it unsuitable for some people with heart disease or certain heart disease risk factors to use.

However, most people who have a heart condition can use NRT. However, there is a small group of people who should not use NRT, such as those with severe arrhythmia, severe angina, or people who have recently had a heart attack. People should talk to their doctor for individual advice if they are in any doubt about using NRT.

Some people also use NRT as a means of consuming nicotine regularly, instead of for cutting down or quitting, and the long-term effects of NRT are not clear.

A 2010 study in the American Journal of Public Health concludes that the benefits of NRT far outweigh the risks. Researchers specifically state that increasing NRT use could save 40,000 lives per year by preventing heart disease and lung cancer.

Electronic cigarettes
Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, sometimes called vaporizers or vapes, all work by vaporizing nicotine. The amount of nicotine in each electronic cigarette varies; some even allow users to decide the amount of nicotine they use.

E-cigarettes have been the subject of dozens of safety studies in recent years, often producing conflicting results. A 2013 study found that amounts of nicotine vary with these products and that some may provide dangerously high, or even fatal, levels of nicotine.

Other research, including another 2013 study comparing several e-cigarette brands, found that they may contain toxic chemicals. When e-cigarettes do contain these chemicals, they are generally fewer in number and quantity than in traditional cigarettes.

Despite these risks, most studies agree that e-cigarettes are significantly safer than tobacco or smoking. A 2014 systematic review in the journal Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety argues that smokers who switch to vaping can expect significant health benefits.

Smokeless tobacco
Researchers have linked chewing tobacco with an increased risk of cancer.
Smokeless tobaccos are chewed or put in the nose. They contain nicotine, as well as a range of other carcinogenic chemicals. According to the American Cancer Society, smokeless tobaccos are safer than cigarettes, but still have links to cancer.

Some types of smokeless tobacco include:

Snus or Swedish tobacco
Snus, sometimes called Swedish tobacco, is a moist powder form of tobacco. The user can suck on or chew the tobacco. Unlike chewing tobacco, people swallow it instead of spitting it out. According to the American Cancer Society, Snus may contain less nicotine than other types of moist tobacco types. However, because it is tobacco, it contains a variety of chemicals that may be carcinogenic.

A World Health Organization (WHO) analysis of previous research argues that snus is unlikely to cause oral or gastric cancer. As a result of this research, the WHO suggest that snus may be an important method of harm reduction.

However, not all research supports this claim. A 2013 case study reported on snus users in Iran who presented with oral cancer. The authors of that study argue that snus and other forms of smokeless tobacco significantly increase the risk of oral cancer. However, this risk appears to vary by region.

Overall the potential risks of snus are unclear.

Chewing tobacco
Chewing tobacco, sometimes called dip, allows a user to chew on or suck tobacco. Some people hold it between their cheeks and gum while tissues in the mouth absorb the nicotine. People then spit it out.

However, the American Cancer Society note that while users consume roughly the same amount of nicotine as people who smoke cigarettes, they also take in lots of dangerous chemicals.

The Society state that there are strong correlations between chewing tobacco and the development of oral cancer, pancreatic cancer, and esophageal cancer, as well as gum disease and other mouth health problems.


Quitting or cutting down on nicotine

Smokeless nicotine products that do not contain tobacco may offer a useful harm reduction strategy for many smokers, and also a way of reducing the side effects of quitting nicotine.

Smokeless nicotine products, such as NRT, provide the most significant benefit. Users should steadily reduce the amount of nicotine they use, or increase the time between each use until they are no longer regularly consuming nicotine and are not experiencing withdrawal or side effect symptoms.

Smokers who are unable or do not want to quit should still consider alternative forms of consuming nicotine. Though not wholly safe, e-cigarettes and vaping offer an experience similar to smoking, but with less exposure to harmful chemicals and an overall reduction in the risk of cancer.

Takeaway

Nicotine is a drug, and no drug can be completely safe — particularly at higher levels of consumption. People with heart disease or heart disease risk factors may be more vulnerable to the adverse effects of nicotine.

It is smoking and the many chemicals it exposes a person to, not nicotine itself, which presents the highest risk. Switching to a nicotine-only product does not remove all likelihood, but it greatly reduces the risk of cancer. People interested in trying these products can consider NRT or vaping, but not smokeless tobacco, as safer alternatives.

November, 2018|Oral Cancer News|

Youth vaping has soared in 2018, new data show

Source: www.wsj.com
Authors: Betsy McKay and Jennifer Maloney

Number of high schoolers who used e-cigarettes in the past 30 days has risen some 75% in 2018

Teen use of e-cigarettes has soared this year, according to new research conducted in 2018 that suggest fast-changing youth habits will pose a challenge for public-health officials, schools and parents.

The number of high-school students who used e-cigarettes in the past 30 days has risen roughly 75% since last year, according to a person who has seen new preliminary federal data.

That would equate to about three million, or about 20% of high-school students, up from 1.73 million, or 11.7% of high-school students in the most recently published federal numbers from 2017.

Nearly a third of 13-to-18-year-olds who responded to a separate survey conducted by The Wall Street Journal with research firm Mercury Analytics said they currently vape.

The new numbers offer a rare look at evolving teen vaping habits. Sales of e-cigarettes are expected nearly to double this year over 2017, and researchers have wondered how much of that increase is because of teen use. But there can be a long lag time between the collection of data and public reports.

Most of the teens who vape said they are doing it for reasons other than to quit smoking, according to the Journal’s survey conducted in 49 states in May. More than half said they do it because they like the flavors that e-cigarette liquids come in and they think vaping is fun. More than two-thirds said they believe vaping can be part of a “healthy life.”

U.S. Food and Drug Commissioner Scott Gottlieb said last week that teen use “has reached an epidemic proportion.” He announced new measures to curb teen vaping and warned he is considering banning flavored products.

The preliminary federal numbers from 2018 are from the government’s latest National Youth Tobacco Survey, according to the person familiar with the data. The survey was conducted in the spring.

The number of high-school users of combustible, or traditional, cigarettes increased slightly from the 2017 survey, this person said.

Monitoring the Future, a long-running youth survey conducted by the University of Michigan, found in 2017 that 16.6% of 12th-graders and 13.1% of 10th-graders had vaped nicotine, marijuana or flavoring in the previous 30 days. Richard Miech, the survey’s principal investigator, said he believes there has been a “considerable jump” in adolescent vaping this year.

This year’s sales growth has been driven largely by the Juul, a slim device that resembles a flash drive and has become a status symbol among teens, who often vape sweet-flavored liquids like mango. Juul has a 72.8% dollar share of the estimated $2.5 billion market in channels measured by market-research firm Nielsen, according to a Wells Fargo analysis.

Health officials are concerned that the high levels of nicotine in some liquids can alter the chemistry of developing brains, making them more sensitive to addiction.

Juul Labs Inc. says its device is intended to help adult smokers quit. “We cannot be more emphatic on this point: No minor or non-nicotine user should ever try JUUL,” a spokeswoman said. “Our packaging includes a prominent nicotine label and clearly states for adult smokers.”

Parents and educators say they are trying to do more to combat vaping with children back to school. “There is a lot more that needs to be done because at this point there are so many thousands of kids who are addicted to nicotine,” said Meredith Berkman, a founder of Parents Against Vaping E-Cigarettes, which advocates for action to restrict e-cigarette access.

Trinity School in New York City, for example, plans this year to incorporate more material on e-cigarettes into its health-education program for students, said John Allman, head of school. “Parents are letting us know about this,” he said of teen use.

The Journal survey was conducted online with 1,722 participants initially, and most of the survey questions focused on 1,007 participants who said they either vape, used to vape, or know someone who vapes. Nearly three-quarters of the 1,007 participants were 17 or 18 years old; 62% were white, 21% were African-American and 18% were Hispanic. Rates of e-cigarette use are higher in older than younger teens.

A total of 501 participants said they vape: 153 regularly, and 348 occasionally. Their most common reasons for vaping were for the flavors, and because they think it’s cool. “I just enjoy the flavor and blowing really big clouds,” one participant wrote.

“It made me feel good the first time I tried it, and I got hooked,” wrote another.

When asked what they were inhaling, 71% said flavors, and 61% said nicotine.

More than two-thirds of the current vapers said they believe vaping can be part of a healthy life, though they believe there are some risks. More than half said their views of vaping had been influenced by posts on social media, an issue that has public-health experts concerned.

The percentage of respondents who said they vape is unusually high, and should be interpreted with caution, said David Abrams, a professor in the College of Global Public Health at New York University. “We can’t make too much of it,” he said, because the survey was conducted online, and the questions weren’t all asked the way they are asked on large academic or government surveys.

Measures taken by the FDA, Juul, schools and parents to limit underage access to vaping devices since this spring may also be having an effect, some experts say. “It’s possible that prevalence and use may decline over time,” said Jidong Huang, an associate professor of health management and policy at Georgia State University who studies e-cigarette use.

September, 2018|Oral Cancer News|

RJR Slapped with $6.5M verdict over musician’s mouth cancer

Source: blog.cvn.com
Author: Arlin Crisco

R.J. Reynolds was hit with a $6.5 million verdict Tuesday for the part jurors found the company played in the mouth cancer a Florida musician developed after years of smoking. Harewood v. R.J. Reynolds, 2007-CA-46331.

The award followed the Florida 11th Circuit Court jury’s conclusion that nicotine addiction and cigarettes caused the oral cancer doctors diagnosed Glenn Simmons with in 1995. Simmons, a bassist in bands throughout much of his life, began smoking as a teenager and smoked about a pack a day for decades. He died in 2003, at age 48, from complications related to cancer-related radiation therapy. Monday’s verdict found Reynolds liable on fraud and conspiracy claims related to a sweeping scheme to hide the dangers of cigarettes. However, while jurors awarded Simmons’ daughter, Hanifah Harewood $6.5 million in compensatory damages, they rejected a claim for punitives in the case.

The case is one of thousands of Florida’s Engle progeny lawsuits against the nation’s tobacco companies. They stem from a 2006 Florida Supreme Court decision decertifying Engle v. Liggett Group Inc., a class-action tobacco suit originally filed in 1994. Although the state’s supreme court ruled that Engle progeny cases must be tried individually, it found plaintiffs could rely on certain jury findings in the original case, including the determination that tobacco companies had placed a dangerous, addictive product on the market and had conspired to hide the dangers of smoking through much of the 20th century.

In order to be entitled to those findings, however, each Engle progeny plaintiff must prove the smoker at the heart of their case suffered from nicotine addiction that legally caused a specific smoking-related disease.

Key to the seven-day Simmons trial was the link between his smoking and his mouth cancer. During Monday’s closings, Reynolds’ attorney, King & Spalding’s Randall Bassett, argued the cancer’s location and Simmons’ relatively young age at diagnosis were inconsistent with smoking-related oral cancer. Bassett noted that defense expert Dr. Samir El-Mofty, an oral pathologist from Washington University, concluded Simmons’ cancer stemmed from an infection related to a tooth extraction. “Not a cancer caused by smoking, but a cancer caused by a virus that sometime along the way Mr. Simmons had been exposed to,” Bassett said.

But Harewood’s attorney, Koch, Parafinczuk, Wolf & Susen’s Austin Carr reminded jurors that Simmons’ treating physician, Dr. Francisco Civantos, a South Florida otolaryngologist, believed cigarettes caused Simmons’ cancer. “Dr. Civantos is the more credible, experienced, the more competent physician and surgeon,” Carr said during Monday’s closings. “He is the doctor that you should believe over [the defense] witness.”

September, 2018|Oral Cancer News|

How early do the effects of smoking start? Earlier than you think

Source:
Author: Julia Mullaney

Smoking’s destructive nature has been known for quite a while. But many people think that a cigarette here and there is okay, or smoking is fine as long as you quit while you’re young. But what’s the truth? How much — and for how long — do you need to smoke before it does irreversible damage to your health? We broke down all the facts.

Put out the cigarette and prolong your life. BrianAJackson/Getty Images

Smoking’s negative effects start with the first puff
The moment you inhale a cigarette, there are instant effects — even if it’s only your first time. The tar in cigarette smoke instantly hits your teeth and starts damaging your enamel. It also hits the gums and starts to do damage. Over time, the gums turn black.

The smoke then hits the throat, where it damages the esophagus lining. In time, this is what leads to throat cancer. It also damages the cilia in your trachea, preventing them from being able to clean away the tar. The smoke then travels to the lungs, where the tar builds up and stays. The tar damages the lungs’ natural cleaning process, which hurts lungs’ ability to work and makes them more susceptible to serious infections.

Finally, inhaling that puff of smoke also means inhaling carbon monoxide, which gets absorbed in the blood stream instantly. You might feel tired and out of breath, and over time this leads to heart disease because it takes away the oxygen that is supposed to travel through your cells and replaces it with carbon monoxide. The nicotine in the cigarette also travels to your brain, which releases “feel good” dopamine and makes you want more. And so the smoking addiction begins.

Smoking’s lasting effects can begin as early as your teen years
In a 2018 study, it was found that teens who smoke and drink alcohol already showed signs of stiffening arteries — something that can lead to serious heart trouble down the road. If you begin smoking as a teen, you don’t even make it out of your teen years before the body starts to be seriously damaged. Smoking and drinking at a young age leads to the progression of atherosclerosis, which occurs when plaque forms on the inner walls of the arteries. Eventually, you might suffer a heart attack, heart disease, and heart failure.

If you start smoking before 25, your lungs will never fully develop
The lungs don’t fully develop until around age 25. If you start smoking as a teen, they never get the chance to reach full size because of the damage caused by cigarettes. Even if you quit, your lungs won’t magically get bigger. However, if you don’t begin smoking until your lungs are fully developed, you can at least reverse most of the damage done to the lungs — but that also depends at what age you quit. According to Thrillist, in order to cut your risk of smoking-related death by 90%, you need to stop smoking before you turn 40. However, the sooner the better.

Smoking for less than one week can inhibit your lungs’ performance
It doesn’t take long for smoking’s effects to damage the body. Actually, it only takes about five to seven days. Since a cigarette fills your lungs with dangerous chemicals, the lungs can’t make a full recovery. And if you keep smoking — say, a few times per day — the lungs never have a chance to get rid of the gunk that filled them. After just a little while, those chemicals will harbor in the lungs and cause lasting damage. Plus, they can lead to various cancers.

But quitting still outweighs not quitting, despite the lasting effects
While the lungs of a smoker will never as healthy as smokeless lungs, the benefits of quitting greatly outweigh not quitting. Your body does have the ability to bounce back. After being smoke-free for just six hours, the carbon monoxide levels in your body decline and the heart starts to function more normally. After a couple of months, your lung function can improve by up to 30%, and you won’t have the horrid cough you’ve had for years. After nine months, your heart is almost totally out of the danger zone (this does depend on age, though). Over time, the body rebuilds itself and heals the damage.

August, 2018|Oral Cancer News|

E-cigarettes ‘just as harmful as tobacco’ for oral health

Source: www.medicalnewstoday.com
Author: Honor Whiteman

Electronic cigarettes are often marketed as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes. When it comes to oral health, however, new research suggests vaping may be just as harmful as smoking.

a-woman-using-an-ecigarette

Researchers suggest vaping may be equally – if not more – harmful for oral health than smoking.

In a study published in the journal Oncotarget, researchers found that the chemicals present in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) vapor were equally as damaging – in some cases, more damaging – to mouth cells as tobacco smoke.

Such damage can lead to an array of oral health problems, including gum disease, tooth loss, and mouth cancer.

E-cigarettes are battery-operated devices containing a heating device and a cartridge that holds a liquid solution. The heating device vaporizes the liquid – usually when the user “puffs” on the device – and the resulting vapor is inhaled.

While e-cigarette liquids do not contain tobacco – a highly harmful component of conventional cigarettes – they do contain nicotine and other chemicals, including flavoring agents.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the use of e-cigarettes has increased in recent years, particularly among young people. In 2015, 16 percent of high-school students reported using the devices, compared with just 1.5 percent in 2011.

E-cigarettes are considered by many to be safer than conventional smoking, but because the devices are relatively new to the market, little is known about the long-term effects of vaping on health.

In particular, study leader Irfan Rahman, Ph.D., professor of environmental medicine at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry in New York, and colleagues note that there has been limited data on how e-cigarette vapor affects oral health.

Flavored vapor worsens damage to gum tissue cells
To address this gap in research, the team exposed the gum tissue of nonsmokers to either tobacco- or menthol-flavored e-cigarette vapor.

The tobacco-flavored vapor contained 16 milligrams of nicotine, while the menthol flavor contained 13-16 milligrams of nicotine or no nicotine.

The researchers found that all e-cigarette vapor caused damage to gum tissue cells comparable to that caused by exposure to tobacco smoke.

“We showed that when the vapors from an e-cigarette are burned, it causes cells to release inflammatory proteins, which in turn aggravate stress within cells, resulting in damage that could lead to various oral diseases.” said Irfan Rahman, Ph.D.

The researchers note that nicotine is a known contributor to gum disease, but e-cigarette flavoring appeared to exacerbate the cell damage caused by e-cigarette vapor, with menthol-flavored vapor posing the most harm.

While further research is needed to investigate the long-term effects of e-cigarette use, Rahman and team believe their findings indicate that the devices may have negative implications for oral health.

“Overall, our data suggest the pathogenic role of [e-cigarette] aerosol to cells and tissues of the oral cavity, leading to compromised periodontal health,” they conclude.

E-cigarette vapor damaged, killed 53 percent of mouth cells in 3 days
Another study recently published in the Journal of Cellular Physiology builds on the findings from Rahman and colleagues, after finding a high rate of mouth cell death with exposure to e-cigarette vapor over just a few days.

To reach their findings, Dr. Mahmoud Rouabhia, of the Faculty of Dental Medicine at Université Laval in Canada, and colleagues placed epithelial cells from the mouth in a chamber that contained a liquid similar to saliva.

To simulate vaping, the researchers pumped e-cigarette vapor into the chamber at a rate of two 5-second puffs every 60 seconds for 15 minutes a day. This was performed over 1, 2, or 3 days.

On analyzing the vapor-exposed epithelial cells under a microscope, the researchers identified a significant increase in the rate of cell damage and death.

The rate of damage or death in unexposed cells is around 2 percent, the researchers note. However, they found that with exposure to e-cigarette vapor, the number of dead or dying cells rose to 18 percent, 40 percent, and 53 percent over 1, 2, and 3 days, respectively.

While the cumulative effects of the cell damage caused by e-cigarette are unclear, the researchers believe their findings are a cause for concern.

“Damage to the defensive barrier in the mouth can increase the risk of infection, inflammation, and gum disease. Over the longer term, it may also increase the risk of cancer. This is what we will be investigating in the future.” said Dr. Mahmoud Rouabhia

November, 2016|Oral Cancer News|