Lung cancer screening for head and neck survivors?

Source: www.medpagetoday.com Author: Mike Bassett, Staff Writer, MedPage Today Head and neck cancer survivors are at an especially high risk for second primary lung cancers, a secondary analysis of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) suggested. After adjustment for various factors including pack-years of smoking, lung cancer incidence among NLST participants with a history of head and neck cancer was more than doubled compared to those without such a history, at 2,080 versus 609 cases per 100,000 person-years (adjusted rate ratio [RR] 2.54, 95% CI 1.63-3.95), reported John D. Cramer, MD, of Karmanos Cancer Institute in Detroit, and colleagues. According to the findings in JAMA Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, a non-significant trend toward improved overall survival was observed among those with a history of head and neck cancer who underwent low-dose CT (LDCT) in the trial rather than chest radiography (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.42-1.52). As was a trend toward better detection of secondary lung cancer detection in those assigned to LDCT (RR 1.55, 95% CI 0.59-3.63). "The wide CIs, presumably due to the small sample size and number of outcome events, prevent definitive conclusions," noted Cramer and colleagues. Still, they argued, "these results support routine annual low-dose CT chest screening for lung cancer in HNC [head and neck cancer] survivors with prior significant tobacco use who are fit enough to undergo treatment with curative intent." In a commentary accompanying the study, Sean T. Massa, MD, of Louis University Hospital in St. Louis, and colleagues, also noted the small sample [...]

2021-11-01T15:16:43-07:00November, 2021|Oral Cancer News|

Patterns of care for incarcerated head and neck cancer patient receiving radiation: a single-center retrospective descriptive cohort study

Source: www.docwirenews.com Author: DocWire News Abstract: Purpose/Objective(s): United States (US) have the highest incarceration rate in the world. In the context of the US justice system, many inmates are older than 55 years of age and as such are at an increased risk of cancer development. Additionally, largely due to mass incarcerations, correctional control is associated with significant racial disparities, further layering the complexity of the prison population’s health. The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of care in incarcerated head and neck (H&N) cancer patients who received radiation treatment (RT) as a part of the management of their malignancy. Materials/Methods: Following IRB approval, a total of 44 charts of patients who were imprisoned for at least a part of their radiation treatment were manually reviewed. The variables extracted included demographic data (age, race, gender), vital status, tumor site, stage, social history, cancer history, RT purpose, RT plan details (start, end, duration, dose, fractionation, completion as prescribed, concurrent systemic treatment), weight loss, surveillance (loss to follow-up) and oncologic outcomes (tumor recurrence.) Data was summarized using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 41/44 inmates were males (93%), 13/44 (29.5%) were African American. Median age at diagnosis was 49.5 years (range 27-68). A total of 21/44 tumors (47%) were oropharyngeal tumors, followed by 9 laryngeal tumors (20%). A total of 41 patients (93%) had a previous smoking history (median 20 pack years), and 30 (68%) had documented history of alcohol abuse. Most common treatment purpose was post-operative (47%) followed by [...]

Study explores the effect of graphic warning labels on cigarette packaging among US smokers

Source: www.news-medical.net Author: Reviewed by Emily Henderson, B.Sc Purchase a pack of cigarettes in Australia and be prepared to be accosted with graphic warning labels depicting the dangers of tobacco use - including images of gangrene of the foot, a newborn with a breathing tube and throat cancer. "Graphic warning labels are used in more than 120 countries to counter marketing that promotes cigarette smoking. We wanted to know what effect such cigarette packaging would have on United States smokers," said David Strong, professor at the Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science at University of California San Diego. Graphic warning labels were mandated by the United States Congress in 2009 but implementation has been stopped pending the outcome of legal challenges to the law by the tobacco industry. In a paper published online in JAMA Network Open on Aug. 4, 2021, Strong and colleagues at UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center, California State University San Marcos, San Diego County Public Health Services, and San Diego State University, demonstrated that graphic warning labels are effective reminders of the negative health consequences of smoking. "Graphic warning labels caused daily smokers in the United States to perceive cigarettes to be less positive and it increased their concerns about the health effects of smoking on both themselves and their loved ones," said corresponding-author John P. Pierce, Distinguished Professor at the Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health. The study manufactured special cigarette packs that incorporated the graphic warning labels used on [...]

Shades of Big Tobacco: How (and why) Juul bought an entire issue of a scientific journal

Source: Salon Date: July 20th, 2021 Author: Jon Skolnik   Facing the imminent threat of corporate death, the embattled e-cigarette maker Juul is pulling out all the stops in its fight to convince the Food and Drug Administration that its vaping products are more beneficial than harmful. If that sounds like a stretch, it probably is. Last month, Juul settled a $40 million lawsuit that accused the company of luring in teens to use its flavored vape products, allowing Juul to avoid the potential PR nightmare of a widely covered jury trial. Juul has also spent tens of millions in federal lobbying efforts over the past several years, presumably in an effort to block comprehensive regulations on the sale of e-cigarettes. But the most bizarre Juul news came two weeks ago, when the New York Times reported that the company had funded an entire issue of a scientific journal, in which every article presented evidence that vaping is a beneficial harm-reduction practice that can wean smokers off tobacco cigarettes. Last month, the American Journal of Health and Behavior (AJHB), a 44-year-old academic journal that has published many nationally recognized scholars, released a special edition specifically devoted to the question of whether e-cigarettes are harmful or helpful. The 219-page issue is unusual not just by virtue of its niche subject matter — e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon in the field of health behavior — but also because its publication was bankrolled entirely by one source: Juul Labs. This fraught episode comes at an exceptionally tumultuous time for the vape maker. In early 2019, Juul, a company founded just four [...]

2021-07-20T13:15:56-07:00July, 2021|Oral Cancer News|

Head-and-neck surgeons buoyant about new, just-right robot

Source: newsroom.uw.edu Author: Brian Donohue You know how great it feels when someone makes a pie or cake just for you? University of Washington Medicine head and neck surgeons have been feeling that kind of love lately, and on Feb. 5 they shared the first slice, so to speak, with patient Steven Higley. Surgical assistants work near patient Steven Higley on Feb. 5. Lead surgeon Jeff Houlton is obscured by the robotics. The cake in this story is actually a da Vinci robotic-assist system built especially for head and neck procedures. It is easier to maneuver than the robotic device they’ve used for the past decade, which was designed for operations to the chest and abdomen. Higley underwent surgery to have a cancerous tonsil and part of his throat removed. Sitting at a console a few feet from the patient, Dr. Jeff Houlton manipulated the miniature surgical tools emanating from the robot’s single port, positioned just outside Higley’s open mouth. It was UW Medicine’s first trans-oral surgery with the new tool. “If you think about laparoscopic surgery in the belly area, robotics provides the advantage of multiple mechanical arms approaching from different angles,” Houlton said. “But it’s a challenge to have three robotic arms that all need to go through a patient’s mouth. With this machine, the three arms are designed to come through one garden hose-like entry port and then articulate out from there. “Pretty interesting, though, that in the past 10 years we built a nationally [...]

2021-02-12T18:43:12-07:00February, 2021|Oral Cancer News|

Is poor survivorship care driving high second-cancer risk?

Source: www.medscape.com Author: Kristin Jenkins In the United States, men and women who survive adult-onset cancers for at least 5 years are at significantly increased risk of developing and dying from new primary cancers, particularly those driven by smoking and obesity, a new study shows. "This was disturbing but at the same time provides tremendous opportunities for cancer prevention and control, not only to mitigate the subsequent cancer risk but also to minimize comorbidities," lead author Hyuna Sung, PhD, of the American Cancer Society in Atlanta, Georgia, told Medscape Medical News. "The importance of smoking cessation, weight control, physical activity, and other factors consonant with adoption of a healthy lifestyle should be consistently emphasized to cancer survivors," Sung said. Results from a retrospective analysis of the most recent Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data from a cohort of 1.5 million survivors of first primary cancers (FPCs) show that male survivors — excluding those with prostate cancer — had a 45% higher risk of dying from any subsequent primary cancer (SPC) compared with men in the general population without a history of cancer. Female survivors had a 33% higher risk of any SPC-related mortality, the study authors report in the Journal of the American Medical Association. A significant proportion of the total incidence and mortality from SPCs was made up of smoking- or obesity-associated SPCs, the analysis shows. "The risks of smoking-related SPCs were commonly elevated following many types of smoking-related FPCs, suggesting the role of smoking as a shared [...]

2020-12-30T11:53:06-07:00December, 2020|Oral Cancer News|

Fighting throat cancer with T cells

Source: www.miragenews.com Author: press release, Centenary Institute Research led by the Centenary Institute has discovered that immune cells accumulating within the tumor environment, called tumor-resident T cells, are a critical determinant in survival rates of patients suffering from throat cancer. Reported in the prestigious ‘Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer’, the research suggests that strategies aiming to boost these T-cells at tumor sites could be beneficial to patients. “Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is a form of throat cancer. It can be caused by environmental factors such as smoking or by human papillomavirus infection (HPV), the same virus that causes cervical cancer in women,” said Ms Rehana Hewavisenti, lead author of the study and researcher at the Centenary Institute and the University of Sydney. “We knew that patients with HPV-related OPSCC had far better clinical outcomes compared to other OPSCC patients but we didn’t know why,” she said. In examining over sixty patient samples, Ms Hewavisenti and her colleagues discovered that increased levels of tumor-resident T cells, whether in HPV or non-HPV OPSCC cases, was clearly associated with improved patient survival outcomes. “It was the accumulation of these immune T-cells, in and around the tumour site that appeared to be key,” said Ms Hewavisenti. The researchers also found in their study that HPV OPSCC patients generally had far higher levels of tumour-resident T cells compared to their non-HPV OPSCC patient counterparts. “We think these HPV positive patients tended to have better clinical outcomes as HPV infection is likely to favor the [...]

Gambling today: time to ban smoking in casinos

Source: www.si.com Author: Frankie Taddeo Casinos are working feverishly towards making guests feel they are not at risk when they travel back to properties with newly implemented safety measures. Among all these new features, there is one important change blatantly missing: prohibiting smoking. Smoking could easily spread the COVID-19 virus, not only because of the need to remove your mask but because of an individual's pattern of fingers to mouth while in constant contact with each game they decide to participate in. Many doctors and experts have gone on record expressing that smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke can lead to coughing which in turn can aid in the spread of the infection. Unfortunately, casino operators don’t appear to have all the health interests of both their guests and employees at the heart of their newly implemented changes. Should that change, now is the time to play the hand being dealt and push all the collective chips into the middle. Patrons either turning on the news or coming across signs in local establishments are told to avoid touching surfaces others have touched, and then touching your face, mouth, or eyes. In casinos, gamblers continuously touch cards, chips, dice, slot machine buttons, and above all, money. Even those of us who are not medical experts can rationalize that the act of smoking could likely lead to a higher risk of transmission during uncertain times Also, what about the risks to non-smokers resulting from secondhand smoke? Part of the outline in the [...]

Novel intervention looks to improve timeliness, equity of head and neck cancer care delivery

Source: www.miragenews.com Author: staff report, Medical University of South Carolina Many factors go into surviving cancer. Hollings Cancer Center researcher Evan Graboyes, M.D., specializes in head and neck cancer, a disease with poor survival prospects despite intense therapy with combinations of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. While head and neck cancer only accounts for 4% of all cancer cases each year in the US, it has a high mortality rate. The American Cancer Society estimates that more than 14,000 patients died from this disease in the U.S. in 2019. Overall, only 50% of head and neck cancer patients are alive at five years. Unfortunately, the mortality rate is even worse for African American head and neck cancer patients. That’s why researchers are looking for new strategies to improve patient survival and decrease racial disparities in outcomes for these patients. Graboyes and MUSC Hollings Cancer Center researchers Chanita Hughes-Halbert, Ph.D., Katherine Sterba, Ph.D., Hong Li, Ph.D., and Graham Warren, M.D., Ph.D., have teamed up to develop and test a novel intervention to improve the timeliness, equity and quality of head and neck cancer care delivery, which they think might one day be the key to improving survival for these patients. Funded by a $1.3 million 5-year grant from the National Cancer Institute, their study - Improving the Timeliness and Equity of Adjuvant Therapy Following Surgery for Head and Neck Cancer-started in September 2019 and built upon important research funded by grants from Hollings Cancer Center. Graboyes explained that for patients with advanced [...]

Test that looks at your spit to tell if you have mouth or throat cancer caused by HPV ‘could save thousands of lives if rolled out for doctors to use’

Source: www.dailymail.co.uk Author: Connor Boyd, Health Reporter A saliva test that diagnoses mouth and throat cancer caused by HPV could save thousands of lives each year, a study suggests. Scientists at Duke University in North Carolina discovered the test was 80 per cent accurate at spotting the killer diseases. Doctors say it is able to detect the cancers early on, giving patients much higher hopes of surviving their battle. Before it can be used in hospitals around the world, further trials will be needed to confirm the technology works. But the researchers are hopeful, claiming the cheaper test - which gives results in as little as 10 minutes - has significant 'potential'. Rates of oral cancers are soaring in the Western world, with the number of patients diagnosed in the UK having doubled in a generation. US doctors have also seen a similar spike in the diseases, which can be caused by human papilloma virus (HPV). The infection – spread through oral sex, as well as anal and vaginal intercourse – is thought to cause around 70 per cent of all cases. Other risk factors include drinking excessive amounts of alcohol over long periods of time and smoking cigarettes. Professor Tony Jun Huang, study co-author, said there are around 115,000 cases of oropharyngeal cancers each year across the world. He said it is 'one of the fastest-rising cancers in Western countries due to increasing HPV-related incidence, especially in younger patients'. Orophayngeal cancer starts in the oropharynx, the back of the [...]

2019-12-14T11:12:24-07:00December, 2019|Oral Cancer News|
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