Artificial intelligence being trained to predict risk of developing oral cancer

Source: thestreetjournal.org Author: staff, NHS The diagnosis of oral cancer could be ‘revolutionised’ by using artificial intelligence to predict whether someone is likely to develop the disease, experts have said. Experts led from the Universities of Sheffield and Warwick have teamed up to investigate how machine learning could be applied to aid doctors in early detection. Diagnoses of oral cancers — including those of the mouth, tongue and tonsils — have increased by almost 60 per cent over the last decade, team noted. The risk of such cancers is heightened by such factors as alcohol consumption, increasing age, insufficient fruit and vegetables, tobacco and viral infection. Doctors evaluate the likelihood of pre-cancerous changes in the lining of the mouth — so-called oral epithelial dysplasia — developing into cancer using 15 criteria. As this approach is highly subjective, however, there is considerable variation in how patients are treated following biopsy — and a more objective system is needed. The diagnosis of oral cancer could be ‘revolutionised’ by using artificial intelligence to predict whether someone is likely to develop the disease, experts have said. ‘The precise grading of oral epithelial dysplasia is a huge diagnostic challenge, even for experienced pathologists, as it is so subjective,’ said clinical dentist Ali Khurram of the University of Sheffield. ‘At the moment a biopsy may be graded differently by different pathologists, the same pathologist may even grade the same biopsy differently on a different day.’ ‘Correct grading is vital in early oral cancer detection to inform [...]

2020-11-04T12:05:12-07:00November, 2020|Oral Cancer News|

Smell of a person’s breath may help identify early cancers

Source: www.theweek.in Author: staff Cancer researchers from Flinders University have reported significant progress in developing a method to test exhaled breath profiles which accurately differentiate head and neck cancer from non-cancer patients. Previous studies elsewhere have indicated that the exhaled breath condensate can reveal gene mutations or DNA abnormalities in patients with lung cancer. The global quest to use a person's breath analysis for rapid, inexpensive and accurate early-stage testing for cancer and other diseases has taken a leap forward. The Australian researchers collected breath samples from 181 patients suspected of having early-stage head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) before any treatment began. "We sought to determine the diagnostic accuracy of breath analysis as a non-invasive test for detecting head and neck cancer, which in time may result in a simple method to improve treatment outcomes and patient morbidity," says lead researchers Dr Roger Yazbek and Associate Professor Eng Ooi. Worldwide, head and neck cancer accounts for 6 percent of all cancers, killing more than 300,000 people per year globally. Tobacco, alcohol and poor oral hygiene are known major risk factors for this cancer. A surge in human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated head and neck cancers is seeing these cancers affecting a much younger population, the researchers say. Current therapies are effective at treating early-stage disease, however late-stage presentations are common, and often associated with poor prognosis and high treatment-related morbidity. In the Australian study, a selected ion flow-tube mass spectrometer was used to analyse breath for volatile organic compounds. [...]

Should we be drinking less?

Source: www.nytimes.com Author: Anahad O’Connor Can a daily drink or two lead to better health? For many years, the federal government’s influential dietary guidelines implied as much, saying there was evidence that moderate drinking could lower the risk of heart disease and reduce mortality. But now a committee of scientists that is helping to update the latest edition of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans is taking a harder stance on alcohol. The committee said in a recent conference call that it plans to recommend that men and women who drink limit themselves to a single serving of wine, beer or liquor per day. Do not drink because you think it will make you healthier, the committee says: It won’t. And it maintains that drinking less is generally better for health than drinking more. That message is a departure from previous guidelines, which since 1980 have defined “moderate” drinking as up to two drinks a day for men and one for women. Government agencies have also long defined a standard drink as 12 ounces of regular beer, five ounces of wine, or one and a half ounces of distilled spirits (40 percent alcohol), amounts often exceeded in Americans’ typical “drink.” Between 1990 and 2010, many editions of the guidelines, which are updated every five years, discouraged heavy drinking and warned pregnant women and people with certain medical conditions not to drink. But they also noted that moderate drinking was linked to fewer heart attacks and lower mortality. The 2010 guidelines mentioned [...]

Study: Regular drinkers can curb chance of getting alcohol related diseases with exercise

Source: www.express.co.uk Author: Richard Percival The scientists revealed that heavier drinkers needed to produce greater physical output to offset other deadly diseases associated with drink. Meanwhile, people who recently gave up alcohol could also reduce their chances of getting sick if they exercised more too. Researchers from the University of Sydney used data from participants aged 30 years and over in ten British population-based health surveys. They then compared this with death rates of alcohol-related cancers which included oral cavity, throat, larynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectal, stomach and additionally pancreas and lung Using models, they discovered a strong direct association between alcohol consumption and mortality risk of alcohol-related cancers, with a significantly higher risk among ex-drinkers. They discovered people who drank excessive amounts of alcohol every week (more than 14 units for women and 21 for men) but who did at least seven hours of exercise were less likely to die from these cancers. The study published in the International Study of Cancer last week added: “Engaging in a recommended level of physical activity attenuated the negative effects of alcohol consumption on alcohol-related cancer mortality. “This provides valuable evidence of the potential of promoting physical activity as an adjunct risk minimisation measure for alcohol-related cancer prevention.” It is the first time analysts have looked at the link between exercise and surviving cancers linked with alcohol. Anne McTiernan, a cancer prevention expert at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Centre, said that the evidence between exercise and alcohol “was clear”.

Healthy diet may avert nutritional problems in head, neck cancer patients

Source: medicalxpress.com Author: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign At least 90 percent of head and neck cancer patients develop symptoms that affect their ability or desire to eat, because of either the tumor itself or the surgery or radiation used to treat it. These problems, called nutrition impact symptoms, have wide-ranging negative effects on patients' physical and mental health and quality of life. However, patients who eat foods high in antioxidants and other micronutrients prior to diagnosis may reduce their risks of developing chronic nutrition impact symptoms up to one year after being diagnosed with head or neck cancer, according to a recent study led by researchers at the University of Illinois. The scientists analyzed the dietary patterns of 336 adults with newly diagnosed head and neck cancers and these patients' problems with eating, swallowing and inflammation of the digestive tract. This painful inflammatory condition, called mucositis, is a common side effect of radiation treatment and chemotherapy. The mitigating effects of a healthy diet were particularly significant in people who had never smoked and in patients who were underweight or normal weight at diagnosis, who often experience the greatest eating and digestive problems during treatment, said Sylvia L. Crowder, the paper's first author. Crowder is a research fellow in the Cancer Scholars for Translational and Applied Research program, a collaborative initiative of the U. of I. and Carle Foundation Hospital in Urbana, Illinois. "While previous work has established that the presence of nutrition impact symptoms is associated with decreased food [...]

Alcohol use high among cancer survivors

Source: www.medwirenews.com Author: Shreeya Nanda Over half of cancer survivors report being current drinkers, including about a fifth who appear to engage in excessive drinking behaviors, finds a US study. “Given that alcohol intake has implications for cancer prevention and is a potentially modifiable risk factor for cancer-specific outcomes, the high prevalence of alcohol use among cancer survivors highlights the need for public health strategies aimed at the reduction of alcohol consumption,” write the study authors in JNCCN—Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. They used data from 34,080 participants of the US National Health Interview Survey interviewed between 2000 and 2017 who reported a history of cancer. In all, 56.5% of the total cohort reported being current drinkers, including 34.9% who exceeded moderate drinking limits – defined as a daily intake of more than one drink for women and more than two drinks for men – and 21.0% who engaged in binge drinking, which was defined as at least five drinks per day on at least one occasion in the past year. Researcher Nina Sanford (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, USA) and colleagues caution that for the blood alcohol concentration to reach the threshold for binge drinking, drinks generally need to be consumed within 2 hours, but the survey did not collect information on the duration of alcohol intake and therefore participants who reported binge drinking may not have reached the biologic threshold. They also investigated factors linked to alcohol use, finding that younger age (18–34 years [...]

Test that looks at your spit to tell if you have mouth or throat cancer caused by HPV ‘could save thousands of lives if rolled out for doctors to use’

Source: www.dailymail.co.uk Author: Connor Boyd, Health Reporter A saliva test that diagnoses mouth and throat cancer caused by HPV could save thousands of lives each year, a study suggests. Scientists at Duke University in North Carolina discovered the test was 80 per cent accurate at spotting the killer diseases. Doctors say it is able to detect the cancers early on, giving patients much higher hopes of surviving their battle. Before it can be used in hospitals around the world, further trials will be needed to confirm the technology works. But the researchers are hopeful, claiming the cheaper test - which gives results in as little as 10 minutes - has significant 'potential'. Rates of oral cancers are soaring in the Western world, with the number of patients diagnosed in the UK having doubled in a generation. US doctors have also seen a similar spike in the diseases, which can be caused by human papilloma virus (HPV). The infection – spread through oral sex, as well as anal and vaginal intercourse – is thought to cause around 70 per cent of all cases. Other risk factors include drinking excessive amounts of alcohol over long periods of time and smoking cigarettes. Professor Tony Jun Huang, study co-author, said there are around 115,000 cases of oropharyngeal cancers each year across the world. He said it is 'one of the fastest-rising cancers in Western countries due to increasing HPV-related incidence, especially in younger patients'. Orophayngeal cancer starts in the oropharynx, the back of the [...]

2019-12-14T11:12:24-07:00December, 2019|Oral Cancer News|

Research to examine possible links between periodontal disease and oral cancer

Source: eu.dental-tribune.com Author: Dental Tribune International staff As worldwide oral cancer rates continue to climb, our understanding of what causes the disease to occur, thankfully, also continues to grow. Tobacco use and excessive alcohol consumption have been established as primary risk factors, and researchers are now investigating another potential source for this condition: the bacteria that cause periodontal disease. The research is being led by Dr Louise Belfield, a lecturer in biomedical science at the University of Plymouth’s Peninsula Dental School, in collaboration with the university’s Institute of Translational and Stratified Medicine. Since cancer requires blood vessels to grow and metastasise, the research team is planning to build on existing evidence that shows how certain bacteria that cause periodontal disease are linked to angiogenesis. To do so, the research team will develop miniature tumours and blood vessels in a laboratory setting, adding the bacteria with the aim of clarifying how they function and what effect they have on the blood vessels. According to a press release from the university, if the research ascertains that the bacteria make the blood vessels grow more rapidly and similarly to those associated with tumours and identifies the process by which this is achieved, the results could form the basis of a new screening programme to detect oral cancer risk earlier. This would make it possible to begin treatment in a more timely manner. “We know that tumours in the mouth, unlike many other tumours, are in constant contact with bacteria, but we don’t know [...]

2019-11-06T09:45:25-07:00November, 2019|Oral Cancer News|

Oral sex blamed for rise of mouth cancer in UK

Source: www.medicaldaily.com Author: Darwin Malicdem The number of people diagnosed with mouth cancer has significantly increased by 135 percent over the past 20 years in the United Kingdom. Experts believe the increase comes amid the growing number of Brits engaging in oral sex. Nonprofit Oral Health Foundation (OHF) issued a report showing oral cancer rates “have more than doubled in a generation” across the U.K. In 2018 alone, seven people died every day from the disease in Great Britain and Northern Ireland. “While most cancers are on the decrease, cases of mouth cancer continue to rise at an alarming rate,” Nigel Carter, chief executive of the OHF, told the Daily Mail. “It changes how somebody speaks, it makes eating and drinking more difficult, and often changes a person’s physical appearance.” The foundation said the sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) caused 73 percent of the oropharyngeal mouth cancers. But drinking alcohol also contributed to the higher rates of the disease in the U.K. OHF said 33 percent of mouth cancer diagnoses over the past decades were linked to consumption of alcoholic beverages. Smoking was associated with 17 percent of the cases. The foundation launched Mouth Cancer Action Month in early November that aims to spread awareness of mouth cancer and its signs and symptoms. “We want everyone to be more mouth aware during this year’s campaign,” Carter said in a press release. “This means being able to identify the signs and symptoms of mouth cancer, understand what is more likely to [...]

2019-11-05T09:21:13-07:00November, 2019|Oral Cancer News|

Say No to Glow: Reducing the Carcinogenic Effects of ALDH2 Deficiency

Source: blogs.plos.org Author: Catherine Chang et al. Turning red after consuming alcohol may seem like a mere social inconvenience. Yet, behind this red complexion lies a far more serious problem. ALDH2 deficiency, more commonly known as Alcohol Flushing Syndrome or Asian Glow, is a genetic condition that interferes with the metabolism of alcohol. As a result, people with ALDH2 deficiency have increased risks of developing esophageal and head and neck cancers . Globally, this deficiency affects 540 million people — 8% of the world population. In East Asia (which includes Japan, China, and Korea), this is a much bigger problem, where 36% of the population is affected [1]. In our home, Taiwan, approximately 47% of the population carries this genetic mutation — the highest percentage in the world [2]! Normally, ethanol is first converted to acetaldehyde (a toxic intermediate) by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). A second enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), then converts toxic acetaldehyde into acetate, a compound which can be safely metabolized in the body. For people who carry wild type ALDH2*1, acetaldehyde can be broken down quickly. People with ALDH2 deficiency, however, have a point mutation which leads to the less efficient mutant ALDH2*2 [3], [4]. Enzymatic activity in ALDH2-deficient individuals can be as low as 4% compared to wild type [4], [5], [6], [7]. As a result, acetaldehyde accumulates and induces an inflammatory response that causes the skin to flush after drinking alcohol [8]. Turning red is the most obvious result of ALDH2 deficiency, but [...]

2019-09-10T04:23:56-07:00September, 2019|Oral Cancer News|
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