Should we be drinking less?

Source: www.nytimes.com Author: Anahad O’Connor Can a daily drink or two lead to better health? For many years, the federal government’s influential dietary guidelines implied as much, saying there was evidence that moderate drinking could lower the risk of heart disease and reduce mortality. But now a committee of scientists that is helping to update the latest edition of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans is taking a harder stance on alcohol. The committee said in a recent conference call that it plans to recommend that men and women who drink limit themselves to a single serving of wine, beer or liquor per day. Do not drink because you think it will make you healthier, the committee says: It won’t. And it maintains that drinking less is generally better for health than drinking more. That message is a departure from previous guidelines, which since 1980 have defined “moderate” drinking as up to two drinks a day for men and one for women. Government agencies have also long defined a standard drink as 12 ounces of regular beer, five ounces of wine, or one and a half ounces of distilled spirits (40 percent alcohol), amounts often exceeded in Americans’ typical “drink.” Between 1990 and 2010, many editions of the guidelines, which are updated every five years, discouraged heavy drinking and warned pregnant women and people with certain medical conditions not to drink. But they also noted that moderate drinking was linked to fewer heart attacks and lower mortality. The 2010 guidelines mentioned [...]

Study: Regular drinkers can curb chance of getting alcohol related diseases with exercise

Source: www.express.co.uk Author: Richard Percival The scientists revealed that heavier drinkers needed to produce greater physical output to offset other deadly diseases associated with drink. Meanwhile, people who recently gave up alcohol could also reduce their chances of getting sick if they exercised more too. Researchers from the University of Sydney used data from participants aged 30 years and over in ten British population-based health surveys. They then compared this with death rates of alcohol-related cancers which included oral cavity, throat, larynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectal, stomach and additionally pancreas and lung Using models, they discovered a strong direct association between alcohol consumption and mortality risk of alcohol-related cancers, with a significantly higher risk among ex-drinkers. They discovered people who drank excessive amounts of alcohol every week (more than 14 units for women and 21 for men) but who did at least seven hours of exercise were less likely to die from these cancers. The study published in the International Study of Cancer last week added: “Engaging in a recommended level of physical activity attenuated the negative effects of alcohol consumption on alcohol-related cancer mortality. “This provides valuable evidence of the potential of promoting physical activity as an adjunct risk minimisation measure for alcohol-related cancer prevention.” It is the first time analysts have looked at the link between exercise and surviving cancers linked with alcohol. Anne McTiernan, a cancer prevention expert at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Centre, said that the evidence between exercise and alcohol “was clear”.

Healthy diet may avert nutritional problems in head, neck cancer patients

Source: medicalxpress.com Author: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign At least 90 percent of head and neck cancer patients develop symptoms that affect their ability or desire to eat, because of either the tumor itself or the surgery or radiation used to treat it. These problems, called nutrition impact symptoms, have wide-ranging negative effects on patients' physical and mental health and quality of life. However, patients who eat foods high in antioxidants and other micronutrients prior to diagnosis may reduce their risks of developing chronic nutrition impact symptoms up to one year after being diagnosed with head or neck cancer, according to a recent study led by researchers at the University of Illinois. The scientists analyzed the dietary patterns of 336 adults with newly diagnosed head and neck cancers and these patients' problems with eating, swallowing and inflammation of the digestive tract. This painful inflammatory condition, called mucositis, is a common side effect of radiation treatment and chemotherapy. The mitigating effects of a healthy diet were particularly significant in people who had never smoked and in patients who were underweight or normal weight at diagnosis, who often experience the greatest eating and digestive problems during treatment, said Sylvia L. Crowder, the paper's first author. Crowder is a research fellow in the Cancer Scholars for Translational and Applied Research program, a collaborative initiative of the U. of I. and Carle Foundation Hospital in Urbana, Illinois. "While previous work has established that the presence of nutrition impact symptoms is associated with decreased food [...]

Alcohol use high among cancer survivors

Source: www.medwirenews.com Author: Shreeya Nanda Over half of cancer survivors report being current drinkers, including about a fifth who appear to engage in excessive drinking behaviors, finds a US study. “Given that alcohol intake has implications for cancer prevention and is a potentially modifiable risk factor for cancer-specific outcomes, the high prevalence of alcohol use among cancer survivors highlights the need for public health strategies aimed at the reduction of alcohol consumption,” write the study authors in JNCCN—Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. They used data from 34,080 participants of the US National Health Interview Survey interviewed between 2000 and 2017 who reported a history of cancer. In all, 56.5% of the total cohort reported being current drinkers, including 34.9% who exceeded moderate drinking limits – defined as a daily intake of more than one drink for women and more than two drinks for men – and 21.0% who engaged in binge drinking, which was defined as at least five drinks per day on at least one occasion in the past year. Researcher Nina Sanford (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, USA) and colleagues caution that for the blood alcohol concentration to reach the threshold for binge drinking, drinks generally need to be consumed within 2 hours, but the survey did not collect information on the duration of alcohol intake and therefore participants who reported binge drinking may not have reached the biologic threshold. They also investigated factors linked to alcohol use, finding that younger age (18–34 years [...]

Test that looks at your spit to tell if you have mouth or throat cancer caused by HPV ‘could save thousands of lives if rolled out for doctors to use’

Source: www.dailymail.co.uk Author: Connor Boyd, Health Reporter A saliva test that diagnoses mouth and throat cancer caused by HPV could save thousands of lives each year, a study suggests. Scientists at Duke University in North Carolina discovered the test was 80 per cent accurate at spotting the killer diseases. Doctors say it is able to detect the cancers early on, giving patients much higher hopes of surviving their battle. Before it can be used in hospitals around the world, further trials will be needed to confirm the technology works. But the researchers are hopeful, claiming the cheaper test - which gives results in as little as 10 minutes - has significant 'potential'. Rates of oral cancers are soaring in the Western world, with the number of patients diagnosed in the UK having doubled in a generation. US doctors have also seen a similar spike in the diseases, which can be caused by human papilloma virus (HPV). The infection – spread through oral sex, as well as anal and vaginal intercourse – is thought to cause around 70 per cent of all cases. Other risk factors include drinking excessive amounts of alcohol over long periods of time and smoking cigarettes. Professor Tony Jun Huang, study co-author, said there are around 115,000 cases of oropharyngeal cancers each year across the world. He said it is 'one of the fastest-rising cancers in Western countries due to increasing HPV-related incidence, especially in younger patients'. Orophayngeal cancer starts in the oropharynx, the back of the [...]

2019-12-14T11:12:24-07:00December, 2019|Oral Cancer News|

Research to examine possible links between periodontal disease and oral cancer

Source: eu.dental-tribune.com Author: Dental Tribune International staff As worldwide oral cancer rates continue to climb, our understanding of what causes the disease to occur, thankfully, also continues to grow. Tobacco use and excessive alcohol consumption have been established as primary risk factors, and researchers are now investigating another potential source for this condition: the bacteria that cause periodontal disease. The research is being led by Dr Louise Belfield, a lecturer in biomedical science at the University of Plymouth’s Peninsula Dental School, in collaboration with the university’s Institute of Translational and Stratified Medicine. Since cancer requires blood vessels to grow and metastasise, the research team is planning to build on existing evidence that shows how certain bacteria that cause periodontal disease are linked to angiogenesis. To do so, the research team will develop miniature tumours and blood vessels in a laboratory setting, adding the bacteria with the aim of clarifying how they function and what effect they have on the blood vessels. According to a press release from the university, if the research ascertains that the bacteria make the blood vessels grow more rapidly and similarly to those associated with tumours and identifies the process by which this is achieved, the results could form the basis of a new screening programme to detect oral cancer risk earlier. This would make it possible to begin treatment in a more timely manner. “We know that tumours in the mouth, unlike many other tumours, are in constant contact with bacteria, but we don’t know [...]

2019-11-06T09:45:25-07:00November, 2019|Oral Cancer News|

Oral sex blamed for rise of mouth cancer in UK

Source: www.medicaldaily.com Author: Darwin Malicdem The number of people diagnosed with mouth cancer has significantly increased by 135 percent over the past 20 years in the United Kingdom. Experts believe the increase comes amid the growing number of Brits engaging in oral sex. Nonprofit Oral Health Foundation (OHF) issued a report showing oral cancer rates “have more than doubled in a generation” across the U.K. In 2018 alone, seven people died every day from the disease in Great Britain and Northern Ireland. “While most cancers are on the decrease, cases of mouth cancer continue to rise at an alarming rate,” Nigel Carter, chief executive of the OHF, told the Daily Mail. “It changes how somebody speaks, it makes eating and drinking more difficult, and often changes a person’s physical appearance.” The foundation said the sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) caused 73 percent of the oropharyngeal mouth cancers. But drinking alcohol also contributed to the higher rates of the disease in the U.K. OHF said 33 percent of mouth cancer diagnoses over the past decades were linked to consumption of alcoholic beverages. Smoking was associated with 17 percent of the cases. The foundation launched Mouth Cancer Action Month in early November that aims to spread awareness of mouth cancer and its signs and symptoms. “We want everyone to be more mouth aware during this year’s campaign,” Carter said in a press release. “This means being able to identify the signs and symptoms of mouth cancer, understand what is more likely to [...]

2019-11-05T09:21:13-07:00November, 2019|Oral Cancer News|

Say No to Glow: Reducing the Carcinogenic Effects of ALDH2 Deficiency

Source: blogs.plos.org Author: Catherine Chang et al. Turning red after consuming alcohol may seem like a mere social inconvenience. Yet, behind this red complexion lies a far more serious problem. ALDH2 deficiency, more commonly known as Alcohol Flushing Syndrome or Asian Glow, is a genetic condition that interferes with the metabolism of alcohol. As a result, people with ALDH2 deficiency have increased risks of developing esophageal and head and neck cancers . Globally, this deficiency affects 540 million people — 8% of the world population. In East Asia (which includes Japan, China, and Korea), this is a much bigger problem, where 36% of the population is affected [1]. In our home, Taiwan, approximately 47% of the population carries this genetic mutation — the highest percentage in the world [2]! Normally, ethanol is first converted to acetaldehyde (a toxic intermediate) by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). A second enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), then converts toxic acetaldehyde into acetate, a compound which can be safely metabolized in the body. For people who carry wild type ALDH2*1, acetaldehyde can be broken down quickly. People with ALDH2 deficiency, however, have a point mutation which leads to the less efficient mutant ALDH2*2 [3], [4]. Enzymatic activity in ALDH2-deficient individuals can be as low as 4% compared to wild type [4], [5], [6], [7]. As a result, acetaldehyde accumulates and induces an inflammatory response that causes the skin to flush after drinking alcohol [8]. Turning red is the most obvious result of ALDH2 deficiency, but [...]

2019-09-10T04:23:56-07:00September, 2019|Oral Cancer News|

Twitter lends insight to HPV-associated oral cancer knowledge

Source: www.oncnursingnews.com Author: Brielle Benyon The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oral cancer has risen in recent years, and the virus has now surpassed tobacco and alcohol use as the leading cause of the disease. In fact, while the HPV vaccine is typically associated with preventing cervical cancer, there have been more cases of HPV-associated oral cancer than there have been cervical cancer.1 While the link between oral cancer and HPV may be well-known to healthcare professionals, researchers at Howard University recently took to Twitter to get a glimpse into the public’s knowledge about the topic. “By looking at the social media data, we wanted to know what people are hearing about oral cancer – especially HPV-caused oral cancer,” study co-author Jae Eun Chung, PhD, associate professor in the Department of Strategic, Legal & Management Communication at Howard University, said. “We wanted to see what the gaps are between the knowledge of the healthcare professionals and the public.” The researchers collected 3,229 unique tweets over the course of 40 weeks using search terms such as “HPV or papilloma” and “mouth or oral or throat or pharyngeal or oropharyngeal.” They then used a program called nVivo 12.0 to conduct a content analysis that looked at certain phrasing, terms, and themes that commonly appeared. More than half (54%; 1679 total) of the tweets had information about prevention, while 29% (910) were about the causes of oral cancer. Far fewer tweets were about treatment (5%; 141), diagnosis (3%; 97), symptoms (1%; 42), and [...]

‘Whitish patch’: increase in oral dysplasia in young adults

Source: www.medscape.com Author: Kristin Jenkins Most 8-year-olds with a wiggly tooth expect the Tooth Fairy to tuck some money under their pillow. In the case of one little Canadian boy, his wiggly tooth got him an incisional biopsy, a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a partial maxillectomy, and a defect that was closed with local advancement flaps. "This was the most unusual case we've seen," said Marco A. Magalhaes, DDS, PhD, assistant professor of oral pathology and oral medicine in the Faculty of Dentistry at the University of Toronto in Ontario, Canada. "OSCC predominantly affects patients 40 years of age and older," write Magalhaes and colleagues in a case study report published in November 2016 in Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology. "It is extremely rare in patients younger than 20 years of age." The clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings in this young patient were distinctive. Although the diagnosis and treatment were challenging, the clinical course was favorable at follow-up, the authors said. This case illustrates the fact that even pediatric patients can be at risk for OSCC. Magalhaes said that he and other dentists are concerned about the rising number of OSCC cases in patients who are in their 20s and 30s. These patients have no known risk factors and are often without symptoms. Many are diagnosed with high-grade oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) that rapidly progresses to cancer, Magalhaes told Medscape Medical News. "When you look at the distribution of cases of oral dysplasia or [...]

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