DNA adducts linked to oral cancer in smokers

Source: www.news-medical.net Author: Sarah Guy, medwireNews Reporter Having a high susceptibility to certain types of DNA damage caused by tobacco smoking could significantly increase the risk for oral cancer, show results of a Taiwanese study. Levels of BaP 7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide (BPDE) - a metabolite of Benzo[a]pyrene, an important carcinogen found in cigarette smoke - correlated positively with smoking status in a cohort of individuals with oral cancer, report the researchers. The findings also indicate a significantly increased risk for oral cancer among individuals with high DNA adduct levels compared with their peers with low levels. "Based on our finding, we suggest that detected BPDE-like DNA adducts could be used as a biomarker for oral cancer risk," write Huei Lee (Taipei Medical University) and colleagues in the Archives of Oral Biology. The team analyzed BPDE-DNA adduct levels in oral tissue samples from 158 oral cancer patients and 64 individuals without cancer (controls), using immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results of these assays significantly and positively correlated , so that immunohistochemistry-negative patients did not have detectable DNA adduct levels using ELISA and vice versa. DNA adduct levels also positively correlated with smoking status among the cancer patients, note the researchers, with significantly higher adduct levels among smokers than nonsmokers, at 93.18 versus 0.04 adducts per 108 nucleotides. Lee and co-workers also observed that cancer patients had significantly higher DNA adduct levels than controls, at a range of 0-358.00 versus 0-39.50 adducts per 108 nucleotides. Indeed, DNA adduct level was an [...]

2012-12-31T12:33:45-07:00December, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

HPV alters oral-cancer expectations

Source: www.dispatch.com Author: staff Demographics are important to physicians. Demographics help guide us toward more-likely and less-likely diagnoses in patients.In their most basic form, they mean we are surprised when we learn that the 90-year-old woman with hand pain suffered the injury while boxing. On the other hand, demographics are why a doctor tells the overweight man with a history of hypertension that he is “a heart attack waiting to happen.”Most disease processes can be characterized by a typical patient and are based on age, gender and sometimes ethnicity or socio-economic class. This has long been the case with oral-cancer cases. Most physicians have an idea of a typical oral-cancer patient. We envision an older, male patient with few teeth following a lifetime of poor oral health. They generally have lower income and are lifelong smokers. That’s why the tonsillar-cancer patient was such a surprise to me. He was 34, upper-middle class and did not smoke or drink. He had recently undergone surgery to remove his tonsils and a good portion of the back of his throat. He had come into the emergency department that day because he was having difficulty breathing and swallowing. When I walked into the room, he was sitting on a gurney and drooling into a garbage can that he kept between his knees. The skin around his neck looked swollen and tight, leaving me to imagine how much swelling there was in the back of his throat.His surgery had been six days earlier, and he [...]

2012-12-31T12:29:13-07:00December, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

New research reveals genetic mutations of HNC

Source: www.drbicuspid.com Author: DrBicuspid Staff New findings regarding the genetic mutations that cause head and neck cancer (HNC) may lead to new therapies, according to collaborative research presented in November at the 2012 Chemotherapy Foundation Symposium in New York City. Aaron Tward, MD, PhD, and colleagues analyzed tumor samples provided by the University of Pittsburgh from 92 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), according to an article on onclive.com. Patient samples were chosen to reflect the normal distribution of patients with these cancers -- that is, mostly men and smokers, noted Dr. Tward. Of these patients, 89% reported a history of tobacco use and 79% alcohol use; 14% of all tumors and 53% of oropharyngeal tumors were found to be positive for human papillomavirus (HPV). Tumor sites also were selected to be roughly representative of the general HNSCC patient population -- that is, most were oral cavity cancers, followed by a substantial proportion of oropharynx cancer samples and a few from patients with hypopharyngeal or laryngeal tumors. Investigators used hybrid capture sequencing to compare tumor tissue and nontumor tissue from the same patient. They also compared the total number of mutations in the HNSCC samples with samples from previous tumor studies. The analysis yielded a large number of mutations. For example, 5,000 genes had at least one mutation, and 1,300 had at least two, the researchers reported. Dr. Tward emphasized, however, that most of these are not implicated either in promoting or maintaining the cancer. He said [...]

2012-12-31T12:21:03-07:00December, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Positive data announced for Reolysin in head and neck cancers

Source: www.empr.com Author: staff Oncolytics Biotech announced positive top line data in its double-blinded randomized Phase 3 clinical study examining Reolysin in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel in second-line patients with platinum-refractory, taxane-naïve head and neck cancers. Reolysin is a proprietary formulation of the human reovirus. A first analysis compared the relative percentages of patients in the test and control arms with tumors that had either stabilized or exhibited shrinkage. For the purposes of this endpoint, the definition of tumor stabilization was restricted to 0% growth only. Of the 105 total patients with evaluable metastatic tumors, 86% (n=50) of those in the test arm of the study exhibited tumor stabilization or shrinkage, compared with 67% of patients (n=55) in the control arm. This was statistically significant, with a p-value of 0.025. A second analysis examined the magnitude of tumor response on a per patient basis using a comparison of percentage tumor shrinkage at six weeks in each patient with evaluable metastatic tumors. This analysis showed that Reolysin in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel was statistically significantly better than carboplatin and paclitaxel alone at stabilizing or shrinking metastatic tumors, yielding a p-value of 0.03

2012-12-23T08:28:26-07:00December, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Searching for new pathways and treatments for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

Source: www.onclive.com Author: Lauren M. Green Scientists now know a lot more about the genetic landscape of head and neck cancer and hope that eventually this knowledge will lead the way to new therapies, according to Aaron D. Tward, MD, PhD, of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Tward described findings of recent collaborative research on the topic at the 2012 Chemotherapy Foundation Symposium. For this research, Tward, also with the Department of Otology and Laryngology at Harvard Medical School and a clinical fellow in those specialties at the Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary in Boston, and colleagues analyzed tumor samples provided by the University of Pittsburgh from 92 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The samples were chosen to be reflective of the normal distribution of patients with these cancers, that is, “mostly men and mostly smokers,” noted Tward. Of these patients, 89% reported a history of tobacco use and 79% alcohol use; 14% of all tumors and 53% of oropharyngeal tumors were found to be positive for human papillomavirus. Tumor sites also were selected so as to be roughly representative of the general HNSCC patient population; thus, most were oral cavity cancers, followed by a substantial proportion of oropharynx cancer samples, and a few from patients with hypopharyngeal or laryngeal tumors, Tward explained. Investigators used hybrid capture sequencing to compare tumor tissue with nontumor tissue from the same individual. They also compared the total number of mutations in the HNSCC samples [...]

2012-12-23T08:22:47-07:00December, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Australian research grant targets oral cancer

Source: www.drbicuspid.com Author: staff Hans Zoellner, BDS, PhD, an associate professor and head of oral pathology at the University of Sydney, has been awarded the 2012 Australian Dental Industry Association (ADIA) Research Grant. The grant supports research into the relationship of malignant cancer cells and those of healthy gingival structural tissue (fibroblasts). The findings of this research originated from earlier work studying aspects of oral cancer and have shed light on other forms of cancer. The grant, funded by ADIA, is awarded each year to the primary applicant for the highest-ranked research project of those considered by the Australian Dental Research Foundation (ADRF). Dr. Zoellner's project, "Characterization of protein and mRNA exchange between malignant cells and fibroblasts," was considered by the ADRF Grant Committee to be ground-breaking research into how cancer cells behave and potentially evade treatment. "We have recently observed that cancer cells exchange cellular material with fibroblasts, and the resulting cancer cell diversity may help cancer cells evade chemotherapy. Separately, from an immune standpoint, it seems likely that the cancer cells receive enough components of fibroblasts so that they are less recognized as foreign, while the fibroblasts now bearing cancer cell components would act as immune decoys," Dr. Zoellner explained in a press release. "In understanding this process, we hope to eventually inhibit the mechanisms through which it occurs and therefore increase the effectiveness of treatments." The Australian Dental Research Foundation is jointly supported by ADIA and the Australian Dental Association for the purpose of sponsoring dental research [...]

2012-12-23T08:14:27-07:00December, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Author tells cancer story in new book

Source: www.charlotteobserver.com Author: Josh Lanier The cover of Barbara Bragg’s book, “Destination Cancer Free,” says it all. It shows a photo of a man and woman walking hand-in-hand along a beach and serves as a powerful metaphor for her husband’s battle to overcome a diagnosis of stage IV oral cancer. Beating cancer is a journey and a team effort. Bragg wrote about that journey in her book, which she hopes will help other cancer patients and their families. “When we got the diagnosis, I immediately tried to learn everything I could,” Barbara Bragg, a Davidson resident, said. “Because we were going to get through this. There was no doubt.” Arthur Bragg, 65, received his diagnosis last year, after he woke up one morning with a lump on his neck. Within a few weeks, the small protrusion had grown to the size of a grape. A check-up with doctors at Lake Norman Ear, Nose and Throat confirmed their fears. “Your heart sinks after you hear the word cancer,” Arthur Bragg said. “You just don’t know how to react.” Bragg is not one to be intimidated by fear. A U.S. Army staff sergeant in the Vietnam War, he was awarded a Bronze Star for valor and a Purple Heart during his service. But a fight against cancer is unrelenting. He received dozens of rounds of chemotherapy and radiation that left him weak, constantly sick, and he had difficulty swallowing for several days. And, along with his misery, he knew his wife was [...]

2012-12-23T08:11:02-07:00December, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

A tragic turn of events to most important dental story published in 2012

Source: DentistryIQ Date: 12/21/2012 By Maria Perno Goldie, RDH, MS, and Jo-Anne Jones, RDH Jo-Anne Jones, RDH, President, RDH Connection Inc., has much to be proud of! An article by Jo-Anne, about a possible connection between sex and oral cancer, has been selected by the dental editors of PennWell publications as the most important article published in 2012 for the dental profession. Jones’ article, “Sex and oral cancer: What is the connection?” appeared in the April 6 issue of RDH eVillage FOCUS e-newsletter. The article shares some of the latest statistics regarding a possible connection between the human papillomavirus (HPV) and oral cancer. To read the article, click here. The editors participating in the selection of the top published dental story perform editorial duties for Dental Economics, RDH, and Proofs magazines, as well as Dental Assisting Digest, RDH eVillage, RDH eVillage FOCUS, DE Expert Tips & Tricks, Surgical-Restorative Resource, and New Products electronic newsletters. Articles that were published in either print or electronic formats were accepted. Dental editors were asked to submit a nomination of the most important article from their respective publication. Nominations were sought for the following categories: • Most important article from Dental Assisting Digest • Most important article from Proofs • Most important article from RDH eVillage • Most important article from RDH eVillage FOCUS • Most important article from New Products • Most important article from Surgical-Restorative Resource • Most important article from DE Expert Tips & Tricks • Most important article from DentalEconomics.com • [...]

2012-12-21T10:56:21-07:00December, 2012|OCF In The News, Oral Cancer News|

The Oral Cancer Foundation Honored as 2012 Top-Rated Nonprofit

Source: The Oral Cancer Foundation New GreatNonprofits.org Award is Based on Positive Online Reviews NEWPORT BEACH, Calif., Dec. 14, 2012 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- The Oral Cancer Foundation announced today that it has been honored with a prestigious 2012 Top-Rated Award by GreatNonprofits, the leading provider of user reviews about nonprofit organizations. "We are excited to be named a Top-Rated 2012 Nonprofit," says Brian Hill , Founder and Executive Director, The Oral Cancer Foundation.  "We are proud of our accomplishments this year, including the public service announcement we filmed with Actor and oral cancer survivor, Michael Douglas ." The Top-Rated Nonprofit award was based on the large number of positive reviews that OCF received – reviews written by volunteers, donors and clients. People posted their personal experience with the nonprofit.  For example, one person wrote, "I was 33 years old when I was diagnosed with Stage IV metastatic Oral Cancer. The treatments and surgeries that saved my life however left me disfigured, disabled, and dependent on the opiate pain medication, Fentanyl. I felt lost and alone, without hope. I found the Oral Cancer Foundation website 11 months after diagnosis and it was a ray of light for me. I was able to connect with survivors and other patients who understood my struggle and relate to where I was. With their advice and support I've been able to rebuild my body and free myself from the opiates, and begin to live again. I can't express the gratitude in my heart for the Oral Cancer [...]

2012-12-14T15:17:40-07:00December, 2012|OCF In The News|

The effect of treating institution on outcomes in head and neck cancer

Source: medicalxpress.com Patients with head and neck cancer receiving radiation treatment at an academic center have a higher survival rate than those receiving treatment at a community center, according to a study in the December 2012 issue of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. "Despite similar rates of treatment completion and rate of treatment breaks between groups, patients treated in academic centers had more advanced cancer but better survival," the authors state in their conclusion. The study evaluated differences in patient characteristics, treatment, and cancer outcomes in the head and neck cancer population at the University of Minnesota from 2002 through 2008. Data were gathered on demographics, general medical data, tumor variables, insurance type, marital status and health behaviors. The study analyzed 355 patients with mucosal head and neck cancer treated with radiation therapy from 2002 to 2008. One hundred forty-five (41%) received radiation treatment at community hospitals, and 210 (59%) were treated at academic hospitals. Within the academic hospitals group, 197 underwent radiation at the University of Minnesota, and 13 received radiation at an alternative academic center. Both treatment groups shared similar characteristics in regard to sex, comorbidity, marital status, work status, insurance, and alcohol use. However, the community group had more current smokers and slightly older patients on average. Patients in the academic group were more likely to live in an urban location and had a higher median income. Patients undergoing radiation treatment at university centers had significantly more advanced cancer. After adjusting for these differences in patient characteristics, patients [...]

2012-12-12T19:48:24-07:00December, 2012|Oral Cancer News|
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