High HPV Immunization Rates Achieved With PATH Initiative

Source: Medscape.com August 30, 2012 (Montreal, Quebec) — Exceptionally high immunization rates against human papillomavirus (HPV) have been achieved in target-aged girls in India, Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam as a result of a PATH initiative, researchers told delegates here at the Union for International Cancer Control World Cancer Congress 2012. Vivien Tsu, PhD, MPH, director of the HPV vaccines project at PATH, reported that a minimum of 80% — and in some countries well over 90% — of school-aged girls received at least 1 dose of the HPV vaccine in the 4 countries to which the initiative has been directed over the past several years. "The reason the program was successful in these countries, and likely many others, is that there is visible government endorsement and involvement in the program," Dr. Tsu explained. "For the most part, people trust that the government is trying to help them, so if the government is saying 'this is worth doing,' the community participates." As Dr. Tsu noted, cervical cancer — at least 70% of which is caused by HPV types 16 and 18 — is a major health issue for women in low- and middle-income countries, with a projected incidence in 2030 of more than 750,000 women. In North America and Europe, cytology has been extremely effective in detecting cervical cancer and, more important, precursor lesions. However, in low- and middle-income countries, "cytology has failed to have much of an impact," Dr. Tsu explained, because these countries lack the necessary resources to offer widespread [...]

2012-08-31T11:09:43-07:00August, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Even one drink can raise cancer risk – research

Source: www.nzherald.co.nz Just one alcoholic drink a day may increase the risk of cancer, according to a new study, which estimates that light drinking is responsible for 34,000 deaths a year worldwide. New research based on more than 150,000 men and women shows that light drinking increases the likelihood of cancer of the mouth, pharynx, oesophagus and breast. One drink a day increased the risk of cancer of the oesophagus by almost a third, according to the study being reported in the Annals of Oncology, which analysed data from more than 200 research projects. Low alcohol intake increased the risk of oral cavity and pharynx cancer by 17 per cent, and breast cancer in women by 5 per cent. "Alcohol increases the risk of cancer even at low doses," say the researchers. "Given the high proportion of light drinkers in the population, and the high prevalence of these tumours, especially of breast cancer, even small increases in cancer risk are of great public health relevance." When it comes to enjoying your favourite drink and looking after your health, advice has often been complicated. Evidence suggests that drinking in moderation may decrease the risk of heart disease, type-2 diabetes and dementia, leading many to believe a glass of wine a day is good for you. But the damaging effects of drinking are well known. An estimated 2.2 million deaths a year worldwide are linked to alcohol, according to the report, and 3.6 per cent of all cancers are attributable to drinking [...]

HPV vaccine not just for girls

Source: www.statesmanjournal.com Author: staff It’s been hard enough to persuade parents to get their preteen girls vaccinated against the virus that causes cervical cancer. Now, health-care providers have an even harder sell: reaching the parents of boys. The vaccine that protects against human papillomavirus, or HPV, has been approved for use in boys since it hit the market in 2006. And while boys don’t share the cervical cancer risk, the vaccination can help stop the virus’ spread, as well as protect boys from other cancers. But as of last fall, just more than 1 percent of all eligible boys had received the vaccine. Since then, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has more strongly recommended that boys get it. And the American Academy of Pediatrics threw its support behind the series of three shots for 11- and 12-year-old boys. But experts don’t expect to see a significant increase in the number of boys who have received the vaccine when the CDC releases new vaccination statistics late this summer. Why are so many parents reluctant to have their children vaccinated? Because HPV is transmitted through intimate skin-to-skin contact, parents may fear that vaccinating their children sends the message that premarital sex is OK. Nationwide, 49 percent of girls ages 13 to 17 have received at least one shot, and about 32 percent of girls have received the three doses required for complete protection, according to a CDC report. For girls, doctors cite statistics about how the vaccine protects against the [...]

Link between coffee and dental care – lower your oral cancer risk

Source: blogjam.eu Author: Jenny L McCoy Studies have already shown that coffee may benefit dental care by reducing the risk of developing cavities. Now there’s even more good news for java junkies. Researchers have discovered that drinking a lot of coffee actually lowers your risk of mouth and throat cancer. According to the findings featured in WebMD, people who drink more than four servings of coffee daily have nearly a 40% lower chance of contracting mouth or throat cancer when compared to people who don’t drink coffee. For those who drank less than five cups of coffee daily, the level of protection fell to still significant 4% lower odds for contracting mouth and throat cancer for each cup of coffee consumed each day. Protection for oral and pharyngeal cancer was evident, but protection against cancer of the larynx was not. Coffee’s protective effect was shown to remain intact even for drinkers and smokers, despite the fact that tobacco and alcohol consumption are linked to head and neck cancers. Additionally, the protection effect didn’t demonstrate a boost by consuming fruits and vegetables, which are also known to protect against head and neck cancers. The researchers at the University of Milan reached these findings when they analyzed nine studies comparing 5,139 people with head and neck cancer to 9,028 people without cancer. So, which ingredient in coffee is responsible for reducing the risk of oral cancer? The study dismissed caffeine as a likely possibility since drinking tea, even in mass quantities, was [...]

It Costs More, but Is It Worth More?

Source: The New York Times- Opinion Pages By EZEKIEL J. EMANUEL and STEVEN D. PEARSON If you want to know what is wrong with American health care today, exhibit A might be the two new proton beam treatment facilities the Mayo Clinic has begun building, one in Minnesota, the other in Arizona, at a cost of more than $180 million dollars each. They are part of a medical arms race for proton beam machines, which could cost taxpayers billions of dollars for a treatment that, in many cases, appears to be no better than cheaper alternatives. Proton beam therapy is a kind of radiation used to treat cancers. The particles are made of atomic nuclei rather than the usual X-rays, and theoretically can be focused more precisely on cancerous tissue, minimizing the danger to healthy tissue surrounding it. But the machines are tremendously expensive, requiring a particle accelerator encased in a football-field-size building with concrete walls. As a result, Medicare will pay around $50,000 for proton beam therapy for a patient with prostate cancer, roughly twice as much as it would if the patient received another type of radiation. The higher price would be worth it if proton beam therapy cured more people or significantly reduced side effects. But there is no evidence showing that this is true, except for a handful of rare pediatric cancers, like brain and spinal cord cancer. For children, the treatment does a better job of limiting damage to normal brain cells and reducing the [...]

2012-08-28T09:24:52-07:00August, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Researchers Identify Chemical Linked to Oral Cancer Risk in Smokeless Tobacco

By Denise Mann WebMD Health News Reviewed by Louise Chang, MD Aug. 22, 2012 -- Dip, chew, snuff, and other types of smokeless tobacco are known to increase risk for oral cancer. Now new research in rats is zeroing in on exactly how this may occur. The findings were presented at the American Chemical Society's annual meeting in Philadelphia. The newly identified cancer-causing culprit in these products is (S)-NNN. It is part of a larger family of chemicals called nitrosamines. Nitrosamines are also found in such foods as beer and bacon. They form naturally in the stomach when people eat foods containing high levels of nitrite. Nitrosamine levels in smokeless tobacco are far higher than in food, according to a prepared statement. Researchers fed rats a low dose of two forms of chemicals found in smokeless tobacco for 17 months. The doses were about equivalent to a person who used half a tin of smokeless tobacco every day for 30 years. (S)-NNN seemed to cause large numbers of oral and esophageal tumors in the rats, the study shows. "There is a very specific oral carcinogen in smokeless tobacco and it is potent," says researcher Silvia Balbo, PhD. She is a cancer researcher at the Masonic Cancer Center of the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis. This compound is found in all smokeless tobacco products, including those that look like breath mints, strips, or candy, and “snus,” which are pouches filled with tobacco that are placed between the upper lip and gum. [...]

2012-08-23T09:19:37-07:00August, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) Profiles—Validated Risk Predictors for Progression to Oral Cancer

Source: Cancer Prevention Research Lewei Zhang4,5, Catherine F. Poh1,2,4,5, Michele Williams2,4, Denise M. Laronde1,4, Ken Berean5, Pamela J. Gardner3, Huijun Jiang1, Lang Wu6, J. Jack Lee8, and Miriam P. Rosin1 Authors' Affiliations: 1Cancer Control Research Department, 2Oral Oncology Department, 3Fraser Valley Program in Oral Oncology/Dentistry, British Columbia Cancer Agency; 4Faculty of Dentistry and Departments of 5Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and 6Statistics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver; 7Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada; and 8Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas Corresponding Author: Miriam P. Rosin, Director, BC Oral Cancer Prevention Program, BC Cancer Agency, Department of Cancer Control Research, 675 West 10th Avenue, Rm 3-113, Vancouver V5Z 1L3, British Columbia, Canada. Phone: 604-675-8061; Fax: 604-675-8180; E-mail: mrosin@bccrc.ca Abstract A major barrier to oral cancer prevention has been the lack of validated risk predictors for oral premalignant lesions (OPL). In 2000, we proposed a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) risk model in a retrospective study. This paper validated the previously reported LOH profiles as risk predictors and developed refined models via the largest longitudinal study to date of low-grade OPLs from a population-based patient group. Analysis involved a prospective cohort of 296 patients with primary mild/moderate oral dysplasia enrolled in the Oral Cancer Prediction Longitudinal Study. LOH status was determined in these OPLs. Patients were classified into high-risk or low-risk profiles to validate the 2000 model. Risk models were refined using recursive partitioning and Cox regression analyses. The prospective cohort validated that the high-risk lesions (3p and/or 9p LOH) had a 22.6-fold increase in risk (P = 0.002) compared [...]

2012-08-22T11:47:21-07:00August, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Molecular markers help predict oral cancer progression

Source: DrBicuspid.com August 21, 2012 -- A group of molecular markers has been identified that can help clinicians determine which patients with low-grade oral premalignant lesions are at high risk for progression to oral cancer, according to data from the Oral Cancer Prediction Longitudinal Study published in Cancer Prevention Research (August 21, 2012). "The results of our study should help to build awareness that not everyone with a low-grade oral premalignant lesion will progress to cancer," said Miriam Rosin, PhD, director of the Oral Cancer Prevention Program at the British Columbia (BC) Cancer Agency, in a press release issued by the American Association of Cancer Research, which publishes the journal. "However, they should also begin to give clinicians a better idea of which patients need closer follow-up." In 2000, Rosin and colleagues used samples of oral premalignant lesions in which progression to cancer was known to have subsequently occurred to develop a method for grouping patients into low- or high-risk categories based on differences in their DNA. In their current population-based study, the researchers confirmed that this approach was able to correctly categorize patients as less or more likely to progress to cancer. They analyzed samples from 296 patients with mild or moderate oral dysplasia identified and followed over years by the BC Oral Biopsy Service, which receives biopsies from dentists and ear, nose, and throat surgeons across the province. Patients classified as high-risk had an almost 23-fold increased risk for progression. Next, the researchers added two additional DNA molecular [...]

2012-08-22T09:55:45-07:00August, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Salivary glands project offers hope for head and neck cancer patients

Source: Dental-Tribune.com   Researchers have shown that salivary cells cultured outside the body can be coaxed into forming organized structures similar to those found in the body. These images show cells marked with fluorescent dyes that identify specific proteins found in salivary tissues. (DTI/Photo courtesy of Swati Pradhan-Bhatt/University of Delaware) HOUSTON, Texas/NEWARK & WILMINGTON, Del., USA: Scientists in the U.S. have started a four-year program with the aim of regenerating artificial salivary glands from patients' own cells. As few researchers have applied tissue-engineering strategies in the past, they hope that their current work will lead to new solutions for cancer patients suffering from dry mouth as a consequence of radiation therapy. The researchers estimate that about 40,000 head and neck cancer patients undergo standard radiation as an early course of treatment each year, which often destroys the saliva-producing cells in their mouths. Consequently, patients have difficulty swallowing, eating and speaking owing to dry mouth, a serious condition that is also known to accelerate tooth decay and to induce oral infections. "There is currently no way to prevent or cure xerostomia for cancer patients who are undergoing radiation therapy. This is clearly a problem where regenerative medicine holds great promise for improving the quality of life for many people," said Dr. Robert Witt, a head and neck surgical oncologist at the Helen F. Graham Cancer Center. For the project, the team developed a technique to harvest and grow salivary acinar cells, which are responsible for water and enzyme production, in the [...]

2012-08-21T18:54:05-07:00August, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Fewer teens having oral sex

Source: CNN.com Fewer teens aged 15 to 17 are having oral sex now than in 2002, according to a new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, but the number remains high. The report, based on data from The National Survey of Family Growth, found that more than a third of teens had engaged in oral sex by the time they turned 17. That number climbed to almost 50% by age 19, and more than 80% for 24-year-olds. The study - based on computer surveys given to over 6,000 teens - also looked at the timing of first oral sex in relation to the timing of first vaginal intercourse. It found that the prevalence of having oral sex before vaginal intercourse was about the same as those having vaginal intercourse before oral sex. "This new CDC analysis debunks many myths about when young people are initiating oral sex," wrote Leslie Kantor, vice president for education at Planned Parenthood, a family planning advocacy group. "Although there has never been data to support it, there has been the perception that many teens engage in oral sex as a 'risk-free' alternative to intercourse. But the CDC analysis shows that sexually active young people are likely to engage in both activities," she wrote. How Americans view teen sex But oral sex, like vaginal intercourse, is not risk-free. According to the CDC's website, "numerous studies have demonstrated that oral sex can result in the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted disease," not the least of which [...]

2012-08-20T10:51:44-07:00August, 2012|Oral Cancer News|
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