Nanoparticles kill head/neck cancer cells in mice

Source: Author: DrBicuspid Staff Using nanoparticles and alternating magnetic fields, University of Georgia scientists have found that head and neck cancerous tumor cells in mice can be killed in half an hour without harming healthy cells. The findings, published in Theranostics, mark the first time to the researchers' knowledge that this cancer type has been treated using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-induced hyperthermia in laboratory mice. The researchers successfully used small concentrations of nanoparticles to kill the cancer cells, noted Qun Zhao, lead author and assistant professor of physics, in a press release. They found that the treatment easily destroyed the cells of cancerous tumors that were composed entirely of epithelium (Theranostics, 2012, Vol. 2:1, pp. 113-121). Other research groups are exploring the use of heated nanoparticles as a potential cancer treatment, and previous studies have shown that high temperatures created by combining magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with strong alternating magnetic currents can create enough heat to kill tumor cells. Zhao said he is optimistic about his findings, but explained that future studies will need to include larger animals before a human clinical trial could be considered. For the experiment, researchers injected 0.5 milliliter of nanoparticle solution directly into the tumor site. With the mouse relaxed under anesthesia, they placed the animal in a plastic tube wrapped with a wire coil that generated magnetic fields that alternated directions 100,000 times each second. The magnetic fields produced by the wire coil heated only the concentrated nanoparticles within the cancerous tumor and [...]

Mouthing off against oral cancer

Source: Author: staff April Is Oral Cancer Awareness Month According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 30,000 new cases of oral cancer are diagnosed each year, and more than 8,000 deaths occur annually. The five-year survival rate for oral cancers is roughly 50 percent. In observance of Oral Cancer Awareness Month, the Academy of General Dentistry (AGD) recommends that patients receive a dental exam from a general dentist every six months. Dental exams not only help to decrease a patient's risk of oral diseases, such as cavities and periodontal (gum) disease, but they also may help to diagnose other, sometimes life-threatening, medical conditions, such as oral cancer. "The next time you visit your dentist, ask about an oral cancer screening," says AGD spokesperson Seung-Hee Rhee, DDS, FAGD. "Your dentist will feel for lumps or irregular tissue changes in your neck, head, cheeks, and oral cavity and thoroughly examine the soft tissues in your mouth, specifically looking for any sores or discolored tissues. Although you may have already been receiving this screening from your dentist, it's a good idea to confirm that this screening is a part, and will remain a part, of your regular exam." Although oral cancer is sometimes difficult to self-diagnose, warning signs may include bleeding sores; sores that do not heal; lumps; thick, hard spots; soreness or feeling that something is caught in the throat; difficulty chewing or swallowing; ear pain; difficulty moving the jaw or tongue; hoarseness; and numbness of [...]

HPV-related head and neck cancer on the rise among middle-aged white men

Source: Author: staff Research led by Lauren Cole, a public health graduate student, and Dr. Edward Peters, Associate Professor of Public Health and Director of the Epidemiology Program at LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans, reports that the incidence of head and neck cancer has risen at sites associated with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection, with the greatest increase among middle-aged white men. At the same time, younger, Non-Hispanic blacks experienced a substantial decrease in these cancers. They also found that the disease process for tumors associated with HPV is different from those caused by exposure to tobacco and alcohol, with implications for treatment. The findings are published this month in the PLoS ONE journal. Tobacco and alcohol are the most common risk factors for cancers of the head and neck, but HPV infection is emerging as an important risk factor as well. The objectives of this study were to assess the recent incidence of head and neck cancer in the United States and to investigate the trends of these cancers associated with HPV infection. Using incidence data for 1995-2005 from 40 US population-based cancer registries, the researchers described the epidemiology of head and neck cancer (HNC) in the US and examined the variation in cancer rates by age, sex, race/ethnicity, stage and cancer location. As some HNC sites are strongly associated with a tendency for HPV infection, they also examined if rates varied by those sites associated with HPV. "During 1995-2005, we observed a significant overall increase in [...]

Prevalidation of Salivary Biomarkers for Oral Cancer Detection

Source: Abstract Background: Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 60%. Presently, there are no scientifically credible early detection techniques beyond conventional clinical oral examination. The goal of this study is to validate whether the seven mRNAs and three proteins previously reported as biomarkers are capable of discriminating patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) from healthy subjects in independent cohorts and by a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Early Detection Research Network (EDRN)-Biomarker Reference Laboratory (BRL). Methods: Three hundred and ninety-five subjects from five independent cohorts based on case controlled design were investigated by two independent laboratories, University of California, Los Angeles (Los Angeles, CA) discovery laboratory and NCI-EDRN-BRL. Results: Expression of all seven mRNA and three protein markers was increased in OSCC versus controls in all five cohorts. With respect to individual marker performance across the five cohorts, the increase in interleukin (IL)-8 and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was statistically significant and they remained top performers across different cohorts in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A previously identified multiple marker model showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for prediction of OSCC status ranging from 0.74 to 0.86 across the cohorts. Conclusions: The validation of these biomarkers showed their feasibility in the discrimination of OSCCs from healthy controls. Established assay technologies are robust enough to perform independently. Individual cutoff values for each of these markers and for the combined predictive model need to be further defined in large [...]

2012-03-29T16:06:49-07:00March, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Nobel Laureate Makes Strong Case for Vaccinating Young Males Against HPV to Prevent Cervical Cancer in Females

Source: Therapeutics Daily AUSTIN, Texas, March 26, 2012 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Nobel Prize winner Harald zur Hausen called for vaccinating both young males and females for human papilloma virus (HPV) in an achievable quest to eradicate cervical cancer, which is the second leading type of women's cancer worldwide. Zur Hausen made his remarks at a gathering of more than 1,600 members of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology during its 43rd Annual Meeting on Women's Cancer® in Austin. "If we wish to eradicate these types of infections – then theoretically we can do it," zur Hausen said. "And if we wish to achieve this (eradication of HPV) in a foreseeable period of time, then we should vaccinate both genders globally." He pointed out that educational, cultural and religious barriers contribute to the lack of knowledge or willingness to address or discuss the subject by public health officials, teachers, parents and even some physicians. Zur Hausen also said that if society were to vaccinate just one gender to prevent the spread of cervical-cancer causing HPV, it would be more effective to vaccinate just males, highlighting the potential medical value of male HPV vaccinations. Zur Hausen also noted that research shows that early fears of the side effects of the HPV vaccine were overblown, and Australian research shows that there is about one adverse reaction in 100,000 vaccinations, which confirms the safe nature of the vaccine. Keynote speaker for this year's Annual Meeting on Women's Cancer, Harald zur Hausen was awarded the Nobel Prize [...]

2012-03-27T09:45:37-07:00March, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Oral Complications After Head/Neck Radiation ‘Underreported’

Source: Elsevier Global Medical News Late oral effects of head and neck cancer therapy are "multiple, underreported, and under-appreciated. "That is the perspective of Joel Epstein, D.M.D., who has worked extensively with head and neck cancer patients experiencing severe dental and other oral problems following radiation therapy. "The acute complications of head and neck cancer therapy are pretty well known, but the late complications are underappreciated," Dr.  Epstein, director of oral medicine at City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, Calif., told attendees at the symposium. As head and neck cancer treatments have advanced and patients are living longer, the spectrum of treatment complications has shifted, he explained. In a 5-year, prospective longitudinal study of 122 patients with oral carcinoma, dry mouth, sticky saliva, speech changes, dental problems, and sleep disturbance were reported by all patients except those treated only with surgery. These complications persisted at 1 and 5 years and affected quality of life (Head Neck 2008;30:461-70). According to Dr. Epstein, the data illustrate the need for better collaboration between oncologists and dentists. "While people discuss  the concept of multidisciplinary [and] interdisciplinary teams for the benefit of our patients, it is unfortunate that dentistry developed  separately from physicians and surgeons. So while we need to interact, we're not really well prepared to do so, particularly in the  community," he said. Clinically, it's important to evaluate oral care, including brushing, flossing, fluoride, and tobacco abstinence, at all head and neck cancer treatment follow-up visits. Patients should be assessed for xerostomia, speech, swallowing, mucosal sensitivity, and taste. Head and neck and oral exams should include assessments for [...]

2012-03-26T11:58:14-07:00March, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Maura L. Gillison, M.D., Ph.D., Receives AACR’s Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Memorial Award

Source: AACR News CHICAGO — The American Association for Cancer Research will award Maura L. Gillison, M.D., Ph.D., with the 36th Annual AACR Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Memorial Award during the AACR Annual Meeting 2012, held here March 31 – April 4. Gillison is receiving this award in recognition of her significant contributions to the understanding of the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in head and neck cancers. Gillison’s award lecture, “Clinical implications of HPV in head and neck cancers,” will take place at 10 a.m. CT on Wednesday, April 4 in room S100 of the McCormick Place Convention Center. “It is an honor to be the recipient of this award,” said Gillison. “Our team strives to generate data that will improve the lives of individuals affected by head and neck cancers, and this is a wonderful validation that we are on the right track.” This award is designed to provide incentive to young investigators early in their careers. It was established in 1977 by the AACR and the Rosenthal Family Foundation to recognize research that has made, or promises to make, a notable contribution to improved clinical care in the field of cancer. Gillison is a professor of medicine, epidemiology and otolaryngology and the Jeg Coughlin Chair of Cancer Research at Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute in Columbus, Ohio. She is also adjunct faculty at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, in Baltimore, Md. Her [...]

2012-03-23T09:31:04-07:00March, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Grant Achatz Drops Malpractice Suits After Four-Year Battle

Source: Crain's Chicago Business Renowned chef Grant Achatz, whose successful battle with tongue cancer added an unusual twist to his story, has dropped his medical malpractice lawsuits filed against Chicago dentists. Mr. Achatz sued two dentists and their practices in April 2008 in Cook County Circuit Court for negligence. He claimed neither took the steps necessary to diagnose his cancer. He sought damages in excess of $50,000 plus court costs. The last of the suits, one filed against Dr. Loveline Dulay and her Wilmette practice, was dismissed Wednesday, according to another defendant's attorney. The medical malpractice trial had already started with jury selection under way, the attorney said. Mr. Achatz's attorney, Chuck Hornewer of Phillips Law Offices of Chicago, declined to comment. Mr. Achatz and his business partner Nick Kokonas opened Alinea in 2005. While it was accumulating accolades from around the country (and eventually from around the world), Mr. Achatz noticed a painful lesion on his tongue. In November 2005 he visited Dr. Dulay, who did not order a biopsy, a decision that Mr. Achatz said was negligent, according to his original complaint. In July 2006, he visited Dr. Michelle Schwartz at Bucktown Wicker Park Dental Associates, who also did not order a biopsy. Mr. Achatz believed she was also negligent, according to the original complaint. By 2007, he was diagnosed with stage 4 tongue cancer, and doctors found the cancer metastasized to his neck. He took part in a University of Chicago clinical trial that used radiation and [...]

2012-03-22T15:24:48-07:00March, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Wider Surgical Margins Better for Early Tongue Cancer

Source: Wider surgical margins for early tongue tumors may reduce local recurrence and improve survival for most early-stage (T1 or T2) oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tumors, according to a new study in the Journal of Laryngology & Otology. Oral tongue SCC is usually treated with initial surgical resection with or without post-operative chemo- and radiotherapy. Regional recurrences occur in approximately one in four patients with T1 or T2 oral tongue SCC, justifying aggressive treatment, according to the study authors from the University of Melbourne (JLO, March 2012, Vol. 126:3, pp. 289-294). “We feel that wider surgical margins may be justified, being the only prognostic factor that surgeons have the ability to improve.” Among the most important histological factors that impact the prognosis for early oral cancer are lymph node metastases, extracapsular extension, and close or involved surgical margins, they noted. "Although other factors have an impact on adjuvant treatment, surgical margins is the only factor that may be improved by the surgeon," they wrote. Traditionally, a 1-cm margin is taken in all planes around a macroscopic or palpable oral tongue SCC, the study authors noted. Pathologists and clinicians have agreed to define involved margins as less than 1 mm and close margins as 5 mm or less, while margins greater than 5 mm are designated as clear. However, mucosal margins shrink by approximately 30% to 50% with formalin fixation and slide preparation. This results in a final pathological margin of approximately 5 mm where the surgeon measured [...]

2012-03-22T09:18:39-07:00March, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Court: Tobacco Health Labels Constitutional

Source: Combination picture of new graphic cigarette packages, released by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration June 21, 2011, shows a varied collection of a man on a ventilator, diseased lungs and dead bodies were among the graphic images for revamped U.S. tobacco labels, unveiled by health officials who hope the warnings will help smokers quit. Credit: Reuters/U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Handout By Terry Baynes (Reuters) - A U.S. law requiring large graphic health warnings on cigarette packaging and advertising does not violate the free speech rights of tobacco companies, a federal appeals court ruled on Monday. Cigarette makers had sued to stop the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's new labeling and advertising requirements on grounds the rules violated their First Amendment right to communicate with adult tobacco consumers. But the Cincinnati-based U.S. Court of Appeals for the 6th Circuit upheld the bulk of the FDA's new regulatory framework, including the requirement that tobacco companies include large warning images on cigarette packs. The decision comes on the heels of a Washington, D.C., judge's ruling in a different, but related, case that rejected the FDA requirements and seems to set up a clash over the constitutionality of the FDA rules. Floyd Abrams, a lawyer for Lorillard, noted the difference in tone in the two rulings and said the 6th Circuit case, the Washington case, or both, would likely end up in the U.S. Supreme Court. The difference in the two cases is that the FDA had not introduced the specific [...]

2012-03-21T10:43:06-07:00March, 2012|Oral Cancer News|
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