Use and Acceptance of HPV Vaccine Still a Work in Progress

Source: National Cancer Institute A bellwether moment in the history of cancer prevention came in 2006 when the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first vaccine to prevent cervical cancer. The vaccine, Gardasil, protects against the two primary cancer-causing, or oncogenic, types of the human papillomavirus (HPV)—HPV-16 and HPV-18. These types are responsible for more than 70 percent of cervical cancer cases worldwide. In 2009, the FDA approved a second HPV vaccine, Cervarix, which also targets HPV-16 and HPV-18. Gardasil and Cervarix, vaccines that protect against the two primary cancer-causing types of the human papillomavirus (HPV), entail a three-shot regimen, with each dose delivered several months apart. But what has transpired since these two vaccines received regulatory blessing in the United States has reaffirmed something that cancer and public health researchers have appreciated for some time: The translation of basic research to the clinic doesn’t end with FDA approval of a new drug or treatment. In many respects, FDA approval is just a beginning. In March 2007, the CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) gave its strongest recommendation for HPV vaccination for females ages 9 to 26, which is the FDA-approved indication for Gardasil. Cervarix is approved for females ages 10 to 25. Both vaccines entail a three-shot regimen, with the doses delivered several months apart. According to the most recent data, only 44 percent of adolescent girls 13 to 17 years of age have received at least one dose of the vaccine. Completion rates for the three-shot [...]

2011-11-30T10:47:00-07:00November, 2011|Oral Cancer News|

Trial Confirms Efficacy of HPV Vaccine, Shows Cross-Protection

Source: National Cancer Institute End-of-trial results from a trial testing Cervarix, a vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18, showed that the vaccine continued to provide substantial protection against cervical precancers 4 years after vaccination. Cervarix provided almost complete protection in young women who had no evidence of exposure to HPV at the time of vaccination. The vaccine provided less protection for the total vaccinated cohort and was less effective with increasing age at vaccination. These findings reflect the vaccine’s lack of effectiveness against infections acquired before vaccination. The vaccine also partially protected women against four types of HPV that are not targeted by the vaccine. (Although HPV-16 and -18 cause about 70 percent of cervical cancers worldwide, as many as 15 HPV types can cause cancer.) These results from the PATRICIA trial (Papilloma Trial against Cancer in Young Adults) were published online November 9 in Lancet Oncology in two separate papers, available here and here. The PATRICIA trial enrolled 18,644 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 from 14 countries. The participants were randomly assigned to receive either three doses of Cervarix or three doses of a hepatitis A vaccine as a control. Results from the interim analysis, published in July 2009, showed that the vaccine greatly reduced the risk of grade 2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and higher (CIN2+). The new analysis shows that, 4 years after vaccination, Cervarix provided complete protection against grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias or higher (CIN3+) associated with HPV-16 and [...]

2011-11-29T18:55:35-07:00November, 2011|Oral Cancer News|

Men in doubt still don’t get checked out!

Source: Author: staff Men are almost twice as likely to die from mouth cancer and statistics consistently show they are less likely to consult with a doctor than their female counterparts. But with rates of incidence and mortality rising at an incredible rate, men can no longer afford to ignore the increasing threat of a killer disease. Mouth cancer cases in the UK have almost doubled in the last decade, rising to 6,000 every year with almost 4,000 of those coming from men and although there are some clear early warning signs many postpone seeking professional advice, leaving fatality rates of the disease at 50 per cent. This is supported by data from the Office of National Statistics, which reveals that women are twice as likely to see their GP as men, visiting the doctors an average of six times a year compared to just three for men. Chief Executive of the British Dental Health Foundation, Dr Nigel Carter, puts this failing down to a lack of general cancer health knowledge in men and warns that ignoring the issue can lead to severe problems in future. Dr Carter said: "For almost all types of cancer, men will die more often than women. There's no biological reason that this should be the case so the reason must be purely down to the timing of diagnosis. Unfortunately, when men do go to their GP their condition may be at a far more advanced stage and therefore much more difficult to treat. [...]

2011-11-27T14:52:41-07:00November, 2011|Oral Cancer News|

Lab at Hershey Medical Center identifies a virus that could kill cancer

Source: Author: Nick Malawskey, The Patriot-News This is not the kind of lab we picture when we think of world-changing science. It’s not the clean, spotless modern laboratories of television or movies. It’s a cluttered, workaday environment, where plastic test tubes rub shoulders with petri dishes and tubs of chemicals on busy shelves. The white board isn’t covered with the scrawl of complex mathematical formulas, but reminders of whose turn it is to buy the doughnuts. But it is here, on the fifth floor of the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, where Dr. Craig Meyers and his team might have conducted a miracle. What he and his lab claim discovery of is breathtaking in its simplicity. A common virus, omnipresent in the world. When it infects humans, it does no harm. But introduce it into certain kinds of tumors and the virus appears to go wild, liquefying every cancer cell it comes into contact with. It’s the type of discovery that could change the world. And like all great stories of scientific discovery, it begins with a moment of sublime serendipity, not unlike Isaac Newton nodding off beneath an apple tree. A Tiny Virus It’s one of the smallest, simplest viruses and yet adeno-associated virus type 2, or AAV2, could be among the most important agents in modern medicine. That’s because it’s almost perfectly imperfect. For whatever reason, through its evolution, AAV2 developed what would, in most cases, be a dead end — it cannot easily reproduce. [...]

2011-11-27T14:38:16-07:00November, 2011|Oral Cancer News|

Acupuncture can prevent radiation-induced chronic dry mouth

Source: Author: staff When given alongside radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, acupuncture has shown for the first time to reduce the debilitating side effect of xerostomia, according to new research from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. The study, published in the journal Cancer, reported findings from the first randomised controlled trial of acupuncture for the prevention of xerostomia. Xerostomia, or severe dry mouth, is characterised by reduced salivary flow, which commonly affects patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Most current treatments are palliative and offer limited benefit, according to Lorenzo Cohen, Ph.D., professor in MD Anderson's Departments of General Oncology and Behavioral Science and director of the Integrative Medicine Program. The condition impairs quality of life for patients, as it creates difficulties eating, speaking and sleeping, while also increasing the risk for oral infections. "There have been a number of small studies examining the benefits of acupuncture after xerostomia develops, but no one previously examined if it could prevent xerostomia," said Cohen, who is also the study's principal investigator. "We found incorporating acupuncture alongside radiotherapy diminished the incidence and severity of this side effect." Cohen and his colleagues examined 86 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, treated at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. Forty patients were randomised to acupuncture and 46 to the standard of care. Those in the treatment arm received acupuncture therapy three times per week during the seven-week course of radiotherapy. Patients were evaluated before [...]

2011-11-27T14:18:34-07:00November, 2011|Oral Cancer News|

Fluoroscopically Guided Balloon Dilation of Benign Esophageal Strictures: Incidence of Esophageal Rupture and Its Management in 589 Patients

Source: American Journal of Roentgenology Abstract OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to investigate the incidence and management of esophageal rupture caused by balloon dilation in patients with benign esophageal strictures. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Fluoroscopically guided esophageal balloon dilation was performed on 589 patients with benign esophageal strictures during an 18-year period. The strictures had a range of causes: postoperative anastomotic stricture, corrosive stricture, postradiation stricture, esophageal achalasia, esophageal reflux, congenital stricture, esophageal web, esophageal ulcer, medication fibrosis, chronic inflammation, and posttraumatic stricture (in descending order of frequency). Esophageal rupture was assigned to one of three categories: type 1 was intramural, type 2 was transmural with a contained leak, and type 3 was transmural with an uncontained mediastinal leakage. RESULTS. A total of 1421 procedures were performed in 589 patients, with each patient undergoing 1–29 procedures. The technical success rate was 99.8%, and the clinical success rate was 91.7%. Patients with corrosive stricture underwent the highest number of procedures (mean, 4.38 procedures). The incidence of esophageal rupture was 14.7%. All esophageal ruptures were detected immediately after the procedure. Most ruptures (98.6%) were types 1 and 2 and were successfully managed conservatively. Only 1.4% of the ruptures were type 3 and required active management. One of the type 3 ruptures was successfully treated with a retrievable covered stent. Two patients with type 3 ruptures (0.96% of ruptures) underwent surgery and were successfully treated. The rupture rate was not statistically related to the diameter of balloon used. CONCLUSION. The incidence of [...]

2011-11-23T10:20:43-07:00November, 2011|Oral Cancer News|

Test Markets Reveal Women Choose Dissolvable Tobacco

Source: Convenience Store News WINSTOM-SALEM, N.C. -- Since starting a second round of testing, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co.'s dissolvable tobacco products are proving popular among women. The product line -- Camel Sticks, Camel Strips and Camel Orbs --do not require spitting, which could be a deciding factor among female tobacco users. According to a report in the Winston-Salem Journal, females represented 45 percent of all adult smokers who bought Camel Sticks, Camel Strips and Camel Orbs during September and October. Of all adult tobacco users, 31 percent were women. By comparison, the news outlet reported that adult males make up 85 percent of moist snuff and Camel Snus users. R.J. Reynolds' dissolvable line is currently being sold in Denver and Charlotte, N.C. The first round of testing took place in Columbus, Ohio Indianapolis and Portland, Ore. "We have seen a noticeable appeal and interest of the dissolvable products with adult female tobacco consumers," Reynolds spokesman David Howard told the newspaper. Stephen Pope, an industry analyst and managing partner of Spotlight Ideas in England, said Reynolds may have discovered a niche with adult female tobacco users. "Clearly the figures for the dissolvable products make for fascinating reading and actually show that here could be a product that, if handled correctly, could well offer an opportunity for a special female-targeted product that could be as significant as Virginia Slims was for Philip Morris," he said. The dissolvable products "could prove to be the first viable smokeless tobacco products for females," stated Bonnie [...]

2011-11-22T10:33:04-07:00November, 2011|Oral Cancer News|

Study Finds- Fewer Dying from Throat & Mouth Cancer in the U.S.

Source: HealthDay News, US News and World Report Author: Staff Death rates improved most for patients with more than 12 years' education Death rates for U.S. patients with throat and mouth cancers decreased between 1993 and 2007, a new study shows. The finding comes from an analysis of National Center for Health Statistics data on white and black men and women, aged 25 to 64, in 26 states. The researchers also found that the largest decreases in death rates for mouth and throat (pharynx) cancers were among black patients with at least 12 years of education. The study appears in the November issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery. Death rates increased among white men with fewer than 12 years of education, according to Dr. Amy Y. Chen, of Emory University School of Medicine and the American Cancer Society, and colleagues. Another study in the same issue of the journal found that poor overall quality of life, pain and continued tobacco use seem to be associated with poorer outcomes and a higher death rate two years after diagnosis for patients with head and neck cancer. The study included 276 patients diagnosed between September 2001 and September 2008. The overall survival rate two years after diagnosis was 90.8 percent. The likelihood of death within two years of diagnosis was: four times higher for those who reported low quality of life than for those who reported a high quality of life; four times higher for those who continued [...]

2011-11-22T09:05:47-07:00November, 2011|Oral Cancer News|

CU Med School prof seeing red over wine benefit study

Source: Author: Sara Castellanos There’s a reason Robert Sclafani always chooses red wine over white wine, and it’s not just because he thinks it tastes better. Sclafani, a professor of biochemistry and molecular genetics at the University of Colorado’s School of Medicine, prefers the darker of the two wines because of its health benefits. Red wine contains much more of a compound called resveratrol, found in the skin of grapes and also in peanuts and leeks. Sclafani and his colleagues are currently testing the effects of resveratrol on mice, and this month he received encouraging news from overseas that resveratrol can have health benefits for obese humans. “There are a number of studies in animals where you can take an animal like a mouse and give it cancer by treating it with carcinogens or manipulating the genes in mice so they’ll get cancer,” Sclafani said. “If you treat the animal with resveratrol, it blunts the effect; they either get less cancers, cancers never develop or they never go anywhere.” Here’s how it works: resveratrol causes damage to the DNA in cancer cells, he said. “We think that’s the Achilles heel,” he said. The compound has been known to have positive effects for more than a decade, but on Nov. 2, a group of scientists in the Netherlands showed for the first time that it can have health benefits in obese humans. Eleven obese but healthy men had taken a relatively low dose of the compound daily for a month, [...]

2011-11-20T09:52:00-07:00November, 2011|Oral Cancer News|

Global oral cancer rates to rise 63% by 2030

Source: Author: DrBicuspid Staff The International Agency for Research on Cancer, part of the World Health Organization (WHO), predicts that more than 790,000 people worldwide will be diagnosed with oral cancer by 2030, an increase of more than 63% compared with 2008. Mortality rates for mouth cancer are predicted to be even higher with more than 460,000 deaths forecast by 2030, more than 67% higher than 2008 rates, according to the International Dental Health Foundation (IDHF). The WHO believes modifying and avoiding risk factors could result in up to 30% of cancers being avoided, noted Nigel Carter, BDS, chief executive of the IDHF. "Although cancer is not wholly preventable, mouth cancer is very closely related to lifestyle choices. Making more people aware of the risks and symptoms for mouth cancer will undoubtedly save lives," Dr. Carter stated in a press release. "Forecasts for the incidence and mortality of mouth cancer are very grim. We hope more countries will develop their own oral cancer action campaigns to raise awareness." November is Mouth Cancer Action Month, sponsored annually by the IDHF.

2011-11-20T09:45:00-07:00November, 2011|Oral Cancer News|
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