Monthly Archives: December 2008

Dissolvable tobacco products?

Author: Scott Walker

Dissolvable tobacco. What took the cigarette companies so long to come up with that?

Made by R.J. Reynolds, the Camel Orb will debut in a few select markets next month before wider distribution. Rob Dunham with R.J. Reynolds says that the aspirin-sized tobacco product meets the needs of smokers because there’s no smoke, spit or litter to contend with.

Meanwhile, the Altria Group, the owner of tobacco giant Philip Morris USA, is as pleased as punch with Marlboro Snus, which are smokeless pouches that take the place of chewing tobacco.

While cigarette sales are dropping between two to three percent annually, Altria spokesman David Sutton says that smokeless products are booming sales-wise at a rate of six to eight percent each year. All of this news is disturbing to Greg Connolly of the Harvard School of Public Health.

Connolly claims smokeless products are designed to enhance the social acceptability of tobacco and it’s apparently working, judging by the healthy sales. And while the Camel Orb and Marlboro Snus present fewer health risks, Connolly says they’re insidious because they keep people hooked and are appealing to youngsters.

December, 2008|Oral Cancer News|

Bravery of cancer fight boy praised

Author: Chris Robinson

A boy given a new tongue in pioneering surgery at a North hospital has been nominated for a prestigious bravery award.

Four-year-old Daniel Sewell has been nominated for a Little Star award, which is backed by F1 champion Lewis Hamilton, Dr Who actor David Tennant and Arsenal football star Cesc Fabregas.

As a one-year-old, Daniel, from Crook, County Durham, underwent surgery for mouth cancer at Newcastle’s Royal Victoria Infirmary. Doctors warned his parents that he may never talk properly.

Surgeons had to take out three-quarters of his tongue and replace it with muscle from his abdominal lining.

Now Daniel is a happy, talkative pupil at Crook Primary School. After The Journal reported on his remarkable recovery last month, the charity Cancer Research UK contacted parents Alison and Richard, asking them to nominate him for one of their Little Star awards.

Alison, 43, said: “It was so hard for the first few weeks when we didn’t know which way it was going to go. If we hadn’t noticed when we did I really don’t think he would have made it. Mouth cancer is a silent killer.

“Even hospital staff couldn’t believe a child of 13 months could get this disease. People need to be aware that this can happen to anybody. It is so important that people get themselves checked out.

“We were so nervous when he had the operation, and we were told he might never talk properly, so when he said ‘Mam’ for the first time I was just so happy, I was dancing round the kitchen.

“He is a little devil. If you tell him to turn right he will turn left. He is contrary, but I wouldn’t change him for the world.

“I was delighted to nominate him for this accolade after Cancer Research UK contacted me following the article in The Journal.”

The Little Star Awards are given out by Cancer Research UK and partner TK Maxx.

There in no panel of judges awarding Little Star’s because they believe each and every child who confronts cancer is extra special. All nominees receive a £100 TK Maxx voucher, a chrome trophy and a certificate signed by celebrities including Hamilton, Tennant and Fabregas.

A Cancer Research UK spokeswoman, said: “The awards are now in their sixth year and allow us to salute the courage of youngsters diagnosed with cancer.”

The awards are open to young people under the age of 17 who have cancer or have been treated for the disease in the last five years.

December, 2008|Oral Cancer News|

Tobacco “Orb” lozenge new threat to teens

Source: MetroSource News
Author: staff

A new lozenge made from tobacco hits some stores in January.

“USA Today” says R.J. Reynolds, the maker of Camel cigarettes, is calling
the melt-in-your mouth product “Orb.” It’s designed for smokers who can’t
light up in restaurants or at the office. But public health officials fear
it’ll end up in school lockers and backpacks too. One official from
Harvard’s School of Public Health called it, quote, “a wake-up call.”
Gregory Connolly said, quote, “These products are designed to enhance social
acceptability of tobacco.” He likened them more to food and said that while
sucking on an Orb may be less dangerous than smoking a Camel, it’s still

The Orb is the latest smoke-free tobacco product, following on the heels of
“snus,” or pouches that sit in the mouth and aren’t spit out. A spokesman
for Philip Morris, which makes snus, said smokeless tobacco sales are
growing annually by between six and eight-percent, while cigarette sales are
falling by about two to three-percent a year. The Orb makes its debut in
Portland, Oregon, Columbus, Ohio and Indianapolis in January.

December, 2008|Oral Cancer News|

New anti-cancer components of extra-virgin olive oil revealed

Author: staff

Good quality extra-virgin olive oil contains health-relevant chemicals, ‘phytochemicals’, that can trigger cancer cell death. New research published in the open access journal BMC Cancer sheds more light on the suspected association between olive oil-rich Mediterranean diets and reductions in breast cancer risk.

Javier Menendez from the Catalan Institute of Oncology and Antonio Segura-Carretero from the University of Granada in Spain led a team of researchers who set out to investigate which parts of olive oil were most active against cancer. Menendez said, “Our findings reveal for the first time that all the major complex phenols present in extra-virgin olive oil drastically suppress overexpression of the cancer gene HER2 in human breast cancer cells”.

Extra-virgin olive oil is the oil that results from pressing olives without the use of heat or chemical treatments. It contains phytochemicals that are otherwise lost in the refining process. Menendez and colleagues separated the oil into fractions and tested these against breast cancer cells in lab experiments. All the fractions containing the major extra-virgin phytochemical polyphenols (lignans and secoiridoids) were found to effectively inhibit HER2.

Although these findings provide new insights on the mechanisms by which good quality oil, i.e. polyphenol-rich extra-virgin olive oil, might contribute to a lowering of breast cancer risk in a HER2-dependent manner, extreme caution must be applied when applying the lab results to the human situation. As the authors point out, “The active phytochemicals (i.e. lignans and secoiridoids) exhibited tumoricidal effects against cultured breast cancer cells at concentrations that are unlikely to be achieved in real life by consuming olive oil”.

Nevertheless, and according to the authors, “These findings, together with the fact that that humans have safely been ingesting significant amounts of lignans and secoiridoids as long as they have been consuming olives and extra-virgin oil, strongly suggest that these polyphenols might provide an excellent and safe platform for the design of new anti breast-cancer drugs”.

December, 2008|Oral Cancer News|

Oral use of Swedish moist snuff (snus) and risk for cancer of the mouth, lung, and pancreas in male construction workers: a retrospective cohort study

Source: The Lancet, Volume 369, Issue 9578, Pages 2015 – 2020
Authors: Juhua Luo et al.

Although classified as carcinogenic, snuff is used increasingly in several populations. Scandinavian moist snuff (snus) has been proposed as a less harmful alternative to smoking, but precise data on the independent associations of snus use with site-specific cancers are sparse. We aimed to assess the risks for cancer of the oral cavity, lung, and pancreas.

Detailed information about tobacco smoking and snus use was obtained from 279 897 male Swedish construction workers in 1978—92. Complete follow-up until end of 2004 was accomplished through links with population and health registers. To distinguish possible effects of snus from those of smoking, we focused on 125 576 workers who were reported to be never-smokers at entry. Adjusted relative risks were derived from Cox proportional hazards regression models.

60 cases of oral, 154 of lung, and 83 of pancreatic cancer were recorded in never-smokers. Snus use was independently associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer (relative risk for ever-users of snus 2·0; 95% CI 1·2—3·3, compared with never-users of any tobacco), but was unrelated to incidence of oral (0·8, 95% CI 0·4—1·7) and lung cancer (0·8, 0·5—1·3).

Use of Swedish snus should be added to the list of tentative risk factors for pancreatic cancer. We were unable to confirm any excess of oral or lung cancer in snus users.

Juhua Luo MSc a, Weimin Ye MD a, Kazem Zendehdel MD a c, Johanna Adami MD a b, Prof Hans-Olov Adami MD a d, Prof Paolo Boffetta MD a e, Prof Olof Nyrén MD a

Authors’ affiliations:
a Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Box 281, SE 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden
b Department of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Box 281, SE 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden
c Cancer Institute Research Center, Medical Sciences/University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
d Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
e International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France

December, 2008|Oral Cancer News|

Oral rinses used for tracking HPV-positive head and neck cancers hold promise for screening

Source: American Association for Cancer Research
Author: staff

A study published in the journal Clinical Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, validates a non-invasive screening method with future potential for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive head and neck cancers.

In the study, researchers at Johns Hopkins University used oral rinses and targeted DNA amplification to track and identify oral HPV infections in patients with HPV16-positive and negative head and neck carcinomas (HNSCC) before and after therapy.

Findings showed detection of high-risk HPV infections in patients with HPV16-positive HNSCC for up to five years after therapy, indicating a high rate of persistent infection and reaffirming the connection between high-risk types of HPV and HPV-positive head and neck cancer.

“There is no question of cause,” said the study’s co-author Maura Gillison, M.D., Ph.D. associate professor of oncology. “It has now become a question of tracking the infection over time to identify those at risk of developing HPV-positive cancer, and for those who have had it, the risk of recurrence and risk of transmission. This is the first study in which we have been able to track the disease and related oral infections for an extended period of time.”

Researchers obtained oral rinse samples from a group of 135 patients with head and neck carcinomas. Tissue analysis showed that 44 of these patients had HPV16-positive tumors. Both the tissue and oral rinse samples were genetically sequenced to specify the HPV variants in each. Patients with HPV16-positive tumors were significantly more likely to have oral HPV16 infections, with an almost ten-fold increase prior to therapy and a fourteen-fold increase after. Patients with high-risk oral HPV infections prior to therapy also had a 44-fold increase of post-treatment infection.

Findings showed no significant odds of tumor recurrence among those with post treatment infections and no association between these infections and the development of second primary tumors at two years. However, this possibility cannot be excluded as longer observation may be needed.

Future studies will be able to use the data and methodology to further explore the connection between HPV and head and neck cancer formation, as well as the biological factors, such as HLA type, that are involved, Gillison said.

“The big question in HPV research is centered on biological factors that cause one person to have a medical consequence from an oral HPV infection and another to be able to clear the infection without any consequences,” Gillison said.

Funding for this study was provided by the Oral Cancer Foundation and the National Cancer Institute.

The mission of the American Association for Cancer Research is to prevent and cure cancer. Founded in 1907, AACR is the world’s oldest and largest professional organization dedicated to advancing cancer research. The membership includes more than 28,000 basic, translational and clinical researchers; health care professionals; and cancer survivors and advocates in the United States and 80 other countries. AACR marshals the full spectrum of expertise from the cancer community to accelerate progress in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer through high-quality scientific and educational programs. It funds innovative, meritorious research grants. The AACR Annual Meeting attracts more than 17,000 participants who share the latest discoveries and developments in the field. Special conferences throughout the year present novel data across a wide variety of topics in cancer research, treatment and patient care. AACR publishes five major peer-reviewed journals: Cancer Research; Clinical Cancer Research; Molecular Cancer Therapeutics; Molecular Cancer Research; and Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. The AACR’s most recent publication and its sixth major journal, Cancer Prevention Research, is dedicated exclusively to cancer prevention, from preclinical research to clinical trials. The AACR also publishes CR, a magazine for cancer survivors and their families, patient advocates, physicians and scientists. CR provides a forum for sharing essential, evidence-based information and perspectives on progress in cancer research, survivorship and advocacy.

December, 2008|Oral Cancer News|

Cancer to Surpass Heart Disease as World Killer

Source: HealthDay Reporter

Author: Steven Reinberg

By 2010, cancer will be the leading killer in the world, surpassing heart disease, causing more deaths than AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined.

Unless new treatments are found, there could be 27 million people with cancer by 2030, and 17 million cancer deaths annually. And, there could be 75 million people living with cancer within five years after diagnosis, according to a new report, 2008 World Cancer Report, released Tuesday by the World Health Organization.

“The burden of cancer is shifting from developed countries to developing nations,” Dr. Otis Webb Brawley, chief medical officer of the American Cancer Society, said during a teleconference. “And with a growing and aging population, we must take steps to address this problem now.”

Last year, there were about 12 million new cases of cancer and 7.6 million cancer deaths reported. Of these, 5.6 million were in developing countries with an estimated 4.7 million cancer deaths.

“The global burden of cancer has more than doubled in the past 30 years,” Peter Boyle, director of the International Agency for Research on Cancer and co-author of the report, said during the teleconference. “Right now, there are 25 million people alive with cancer five years after diagnosis.”

Cancer rates are growing in developing countries as people adopt western lifestyles, including smoking, high-fat diets, fast food and less physical activity.

These countries typically don’t have the resources to cope with this dramatic increase in cancer. Populations in these countries are expected to grow by 38 percent by 2030. And, these countries will have a high number of older people as populations age, increasing the incidence of cancer.

Smoking is the major avoidable risk for cancer and cancer deaths around the world. Currently, some 1.3 billion people smoke. The true burden of cancers and deaths from smoking are yet to seen. This “smoking epidemic” will be influencing cancer in developing countries for many years, according to the report.

In addition to increases in smoking-related cancers such a lung cancer, breast cancer has been increasing up to 5 percent a year in developing countries. Cervical cancer, which is preventable and treatable in developed countries, is a major cause of cancer deaths among women in the developing world. Stomach, liver, oral and cervical cancers also take a heavy toll in developing countries, according to the report.

Cancer treatment in developing nations is out of reach for many people; palliative care is the only therapy offered to more than 80 percent of cancer patients, Boyle said.

“There are currently 30 low-resource countries without a radiotherapy machine. There are 29 countries in Africa where it is legally forbidden to import morphine and opiate drugs for severe pain control,” he said. “Every cancer patient has the human right to have access to all aspects of supportive and palliative care and the absolute right to die a pain-free death with dignity.”

In developing countries, most cancer is attributable to chronic infections. But, 12 percent of the disease is caused by smoking, and that number is growing, according to the report.

Cancer cases and cancer deaths are expected to grow 1 percent a year, with the biggest increases in China, Russia and India.

There are major differences in cancer rates and types of malignancies around the world. For example:

  • Breast cancer rates have doubled or tripled over the past 40 years in Japan, Singapore and Korea. In China, breast cancer rates have increased 20 percent to 30 percent in the past decade.
  • Lack of refrigeration has caused an increase in stomach cancer in some Asian countries. In the United States, refrigeration and improved hygiene have reduced stomach cancer by 89 percent in men and 92 percent in women since 1930.
  • In Africa, there were an estimated 667,000 cases of cancer and 518,000 cancer deaths in 2008. Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. HIV-related cancers are also prevalent.

In the United States, for the first time since such statistics were released in 1998, the number of men and women getting and dying from cancer has dropped, according to a report released earlier this month in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. The drop was mostly due to fewer cases of lung, prostate and colorectal cancers among men, and fewer cases of breast and colorectal cancer among women. Also, death rates from lung cancer have leveled off among women since 2003, the American Cancer Society report found.

To stem the global tide of increasing cancer rates, the American Cancer Society is recommending several steps, Brawley said.

First, vaccines that prevent cancer-causing infections — such as human papillomavirus, which causes cervical cancer — need to be made available to low-income countries. Second, there needs to be greater support for U.S. and international tobacco-control programs. Third, health officials and governments must promote culturally sensitive risk-reduction programs and invest in cancer research and early detection.

December, 2008|Oral Cancer News|

Wart virus caused 25,000 cancers in 5 years – CDC

Author: Reporting by Maggie Fox, editing by Will Dunham and Philip Barbara

The human wart virus HPV caused 25,000 cases of cancer in the United States between 1998 and 2003, including not only cervical cancer but also anal and mouth cancers, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported on Monday.

The study suggests a broad need for screening both men and women for human papillomavirus, or HPV, another team of researchers, who did a similar survey, said.

HPV includes about 100 different viruses, and they are the leading cause of cervical cancer. The viruses, transmitted sexually and by skin-to-skin contact, can also cause anal and penile cancers, as well as cancers of the mouth and throat. HPV also causes common warts.

Both Merck and Co. and GlaxoSmithKline make vaccines against some of the strains of HPV most strongly linked with cervical cancer. They are recommended for girls and young women who have not begun sexual activity.

“This gives us baseline data to measure the impact of HPV vaccine and cervical cancer screening programs in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer and other HPV-associated cancers and precancers,” the CDC’s Dr. Mona Saraiya, who led the study, said in a statement.

Dr. Maura Gillison of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, who has studied the link between HPV and oral cancers, said the findings suggest a wider use of the cervical cancer vaccines may be justified.

“Currently available HPV vaccines have the potential to reduce the rates of HPV-associated cancers, like oral and anal cancers, that are currently on the rise and for which there is no effective or widely applied screening programs,” Gillison said in a statement.

Last month researchers said their computer model indicated that vaccinating women as old as 45 could prevent some cases of cervical cancer, even though the vaccines do not protect anyone who has already been infected with one of the strains of HPV.

An estimated 11,070 new cases of cervical cancer will be diagnosed in 2008 in the United States, and 3,870 women will die of it.

Cervical cancer is even more widespread globally where regular Pap smear and HIV tests are not available. An estimated 500,000 women globally are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year and 300,000 die of it.

The CDC survey of 38 states and Washington, D.C., found nearly 7,400 cancers of the mouth and throat that could be linked with HPV — nearly 5,700 among men and about 1,700 among women

“There were more than 3,000 HPV-associated anal cancers per year — about 1,900 in women and 1,100 in men,” the CDC said.

December, 2008|Oral Cancer News|

Short-term effects of spit tobacco suggest long-term health risks

Authors: Robert Wolk et al.

Use of smokeless tobacco raises short-term adrenaline levels in the bloodstream by more than 50 percent and also causes the heart rate and blood pressure to surge, according to findings of a Mayo Clinic study published this week in Journal of the American College of Cardiology. The results suggest that snuff tobacco has a powerful stimulant effect but that it also dampens the body’s normal protective responses to blood pressure elevation.

The study of 16 young men who were habitual spit tobacco users measured their responses 30 minutes after dipping snuff. These readings were compared with measurements from another session involving the same participants after they had used a placebo product that was similar in taste, color and texture but did not contain tobacco or nicotine. The study was randomized and double-blinded; neither the researchers nor the subjects were told when they were taking the placebo and when they were using the tobacco product.

After snuff use, heart rate increased by about 15 beats per minute (25 percent), systolic blood pressure went up by 12 mmHg (10 percent), and measurements of adrenalin in the bloodstream increased by more than 50 percent.

“These results suggest a very significant excitatory effect of substances contained in spit tobacco on the part of the nervous system regulating the heart and blood vessels,” says Virend Somers, M.D., Ph.D., the Mayo Clinic cardiologist who led the study. “Although we did anticipate some increase in blood pressure, we were surprised at the magnitude of the increase, as well as the very striking increases in heart rate and plasma epinephrine, or adrenalin. We anticipated that since these individuals were young and healthy and were accustomed to using spit tobacco, that any responses that we measured would be blunted. This makes the degree of increases even more noteworthy.”

Robert Wolk, M.D., Ph.D., lead author on this study, noted that these results have implications both for long-term users and for individuals with established heart disease.

“The degree of speeding up of heart rate and increase in blood pressure, as well the increase in adrenalin (epinephrine) levels, suggest that if similar changes occur in people with established heart disease, who use spit tobacco, there may be reason to expect adverse consequences,” Dr. Wolk says.

“Dipping” is Rising
More than five million adults – and more than 750,000 adolescents – use smokeless tobacco in the United States. Snuff use is increasing, especially in young males who participate in athletics. Its cardiovascular effects are not as clear or well understood as those of cigarettes, partly because fewer studies have been done, and partly because many spit tobacco users are relatively young and the bad effects may not be apparent unless use continues for prolonged periods.

Blunting a Protective Mechanism
By placing electrodes into the sympathetic nerves of the participants, the researchers also obtained a window on the message from the brain to the blood vessels on a moment-by-moment basis.

Normally, when blood pressure is increased by an external substance, the body seeks to protect the cardiovascular system by decreasing heart rate and dilating the blood vessels. It does this by “shutting down” the sympathetic nervous system, so that heart rate is slower, and the widening of blood vessels starts to bring blood pressure down.

The researchers demonstrated this by giving another group of subjects an intravenous medication, phenylephrine, to raise blood pressure about as much as they saw when spit tobacco was used. In response, those subjects’ heart rates decreased by more than 10 beats a minute and the activity of the sympathetic nervous system went down to very low levels.

“This is an example of how the body tries to protect itself from the higher blood pressures,” Dr. Somers explains. “However, when the blood pressure is raised by spit tobacco, the heart rate actually speeds up dramatically and there is no decrease in the sympathetic nervous system activity. This tells us that the normal protective mechanisms which help dampen down spikes in blood pressure are blunted when using spit tobacco.”

“Spit tobacco is a very potent cause of acute increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and adrenalin levels,” Dr. Somers concludes. “Since many athletes, who are already under a fair amount of stress in competitive situations, also use spit tobacco, the blood pressure and heart rate increases need to be recognized and understood. And since spit tobacco not only raises blood pressure but also blunts the body’s normal defense response to blood pressure increases, long-term dipping would seem likely to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.”

Other authors on the study include: Abu S. M. Shamsuzzaman, MBBS, Ph.D., Anna Svatikova, BA, Christina Huyber, Corey Huck, BA, Krzysztof Narkiewicz, M.D., Ph.D.

December, 2008|Oral Cancer News|

Government slams Tory claim that dentists overcharge patients

Author: staff

Dentists are overcharging patients by up to £109 million a year, by calling them back too often and splitting up treatments, according to the Conservatives.

Analysis of appointments earlier this year suggested too many healthy patients were being recalled for check up and that treatments were being separated into separate courses, with separate costs. Calculations by the Conservatives suggest that the extra cost paid in patient charges last year was £109 million.

The figure is 23% of the £475 million overall that patients pay in dentist charges every year.
Andrew Lansley, the Shadow Health Secretary, said: ‘Labour’s management of NHS dentistry has been appalling. Not only have millions been left without a dentist, but now we learn that those who do have one are often being charged more money than they should be.

‘The blame here lies with Labour’s botched dental contract, which incentives dentists to increase the number of charges to patients and has led to such drastic cuts in the number of people being able to find an NHS dentist.

‘The Government urgently needs to admit that the dental contract has been a monumental failure, get a grip and put an end to these practices immediately. At the moment we’re all losing out – those who do have a dentist are paying wrongful charges and those who don’t are being blocked from finding one because there aren’t enough appointments left.’

Asking every Primary Care Trust (PCT) in the country how many patients had been called back to their dentist within 12 weeks, the Conservatives found that the average proportion across England was 18%.

Based on the average NHS patients pay for dental care, they calculate that the unnecessary cost was £109 million. However, the figure was disputed by the Department of Health.

Health Minister Ann Keen said: ‘The suggestion that patients are being overcharged by up to £109 million a year is ludicrous. The vast majority of these patients will have been called back for a genuine clinical need such as disease management or emergency treatment.

‘As we discovered earlier this year, only a small minority of dentists are recalling patients unnecessarily for treatment. In October, we helped local health authorities to identify these dentists and the NHS is working with local dentists to resolve the issue.

‘The new contract has made all NHS dentists accountable to their local Primary Care Trust for quality of care. This means that if a dentist recalls patients unnecessarily or charges too much, local health services are able to withhold his or her funding or terminate his or her contract.

‘This is one of the issues that will be investigated by the independent review team we appointed last week to advise how we can best work with the NHS to ensure good access and high quality of NHS dentistry across the country.’

Meanwhile, the British Dental Health Foundation (BDHF) advises patients not to be put off dental check-ups after the Tory claims.

The charity now warns politicians to concentrate on finding a solution to problems.
Foundation chief executive Dr Nigel Carter said: ‘A million fewer people are visiting the dentist since the new contracts came into effect four years ago. Clearly dentists are not targeting contracts for easy money.

‘The Government must address the issues, and the independent review is a start. The Opposition and the political elite should get behind this review and support a positive change.

‘Negative messages run the risk undermining Britain’s oral health. For nearly 40 years we have campaigned with the key message advising people to visit their dentist regularly – as often as they recommend.

‘It is vital to get regular check-ups from an expert. This is so important to dental health, its systemic links to overall health issues such as diabetes, and in checking for mouth cancer, which kills one person every five hours in the UK.’

December, 2008|Oral Cancer News|