smoking

Smoking warning labels could need a refresh to inform public of new health risk discoveries

Source: www.abc.net.au
Author: Tegan Taylor

When it comes to the health risks associated with smoking, most people know about lung cancer and heart disease. But less than a third of Australians realise it can also cause conditions such as acute leukaemia and rheumatoid arthritis, according to a new study, raising the question around whether current graphic cigarette warning labels need to be refreshed.

The study, published in the Medical Journal of Australia, asked 1,800 Australians about whether they thought smoking increased the risk of 23 conditions shown to be associated with tobacco use, such as lung cancer, stroke and diabetes.

While more than eight in 10 participants knew lung, throat and mouth cancers, heart disease and emphysema were linked to smoking, much fewer were aware it was associated with erectile dysfunction, female infertility, diabetes and liver cancer.

The results showed the current warning labels were doing their job, and that it might be time to expand them, said Michelle Scollo from Cancer Council Victoria, which ran the study.

“It was predictable and pleasing that smokers knew about the health effects that have been highlighted in the current sets of warnings and media campaigns,” Dr Scollo said.

“[But] fewer than half realised it could reduce your fertility, and that could have a really major impact on the course of people’s lives … There’s a lot that people need to appreciate.

Part of the reason the link between smoking and some of the conditions surveyed aren’t well known is because research into the health effects of tobacco use has advanced since the time the current warnings were developed, Dr Scollo said.

The current set of graphic warning labels have been in place since 2012.

“In 2014, the US Surgeon-General released a 50-year report — they released a whole updated statement of the diseases caused by smoking. Many more conditions were added to the list in 2014,” she said.

“These health warnings came into effect in 2011-12 and a lot more things have been established. Liver cancer, colon cancer … diabetes, erectile dysfunction.”

Dr Scollo hoped the research would lead to an expanded campaign including new graphic warning labels, showing more of smoking’s health risks.

“People need continuous reminders of these sort of things if they’re going to remember them but I don’t see why we need to be limited to just 14 warnings,” she said.

“I think we need as many warnings as we need to adequately warn people about the risks they face.”

Anti-smoking messaging doesn’t always resonate with people from marginalised groups. (AAP: Dave Hunt, file photo)

There is value in looking at people’s awareness of smoking’s risks, according to Australian National University anthropologist Simone Dennis, who researched the effects of the original graphic warning label campaign.

But she cautioned against automatically reaching for more graphic warning labels as the solution.

Health warnings about smoking were usually framed around a “particular middle-class version of health” and the assumption that more knowledge will change people’s behaviour, said Professor Dennis, who was not involved in the most recent study.

She said the original graphic warnings were effective in reducing smoking, especially among white, middle-class people, but doubted refreshing the campaign would see a similar reduction.

“I don’t know that the constant articulation of danger is doing anything for the people who are smoking,” she said.

The danger, Professor Dennis said, was that people whose behaviour wasn’t changed by the warning labels tended to be from marginalised groups, and pushing the same line risked marginalising them further.

“If you’re marginalised already, that’s a really heavy burden to bear because you’ve done something that’s perceived to be extraordinarily dangerous,” she said.

“[The campaign] missed them last time, they kept smoking, it’s probably going to miss them again. And that’s consequential because those are the people who are going to die.”

Smoking hits new low; about 14 percent of US adults light up

Source: https://flipboard.com
Author: Mike Strobbe, AP Medical Writer

NEW YORK (AP) — Smoking in the U.S. has hit another all-time low.

About 14 percent of U.S adults were smokers last year, down from about 16 percent the year before, government figures show.

There hadn’t been much change the previous two years, but it’s been clear there’s been a general decline and the new figures show it’s continuing, said K. Michael Cummings of the tobacco research program at Medical University of South Carolina.

“Everything is pointed in the right direction,” including falling cigarette sales and other indicators, Cummings said.

The new figures released Tuesday mean there are still more than 30 million adult smokers in the U.S., he added.

Teens are also shunning cigarettes. Survey results out last week showed smoking among high school students was down to 9 percent, also a new low.

In the early 1960s, roughly 42 percent of U.S. adults smoked. It was common nearly everywhere — in office buildings, restaurants, airplanes and even hospitals. The decline has coincided with a greater understanding that smoking is a cause of cancer, heart disease and other health problems.

Anti-smoking campaigns, cigarette taxes and smoking bans are combining to bring down adult smoking rates, experts say.

The launch of electronic cigarettes and their growing popularity has also likely played a role. E-cigarettes heat liquid nicotine into a vapor without the harmful by-products generated from burning tobacco. That makes them a potentially useful tool to help smokers quit, but some public health experts worry it also creates a new way for people to get addicted to nicotine.

There was no new information for adult use of e-cigarettes and vaping products, but 2016 figures put that at 3 percent of adults.

Vaping is more common among teens than adults. About 13 percent of high school students use e-cigarettes or other vaping devices.

The findings on adult smokers come from a national health survey by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. About 27,000 adults were interviewed last year.

June, 2018|Oral Cancer News|

Restaging raises hope against HPV oral cancer

Source: atlantajewishtimes.timesofisrael.com
Author: Cady Schulman

Jason Mendelsohn was diagnosed with Stage 4 tonsil cancer from HPV in 2014 after finding just one bump on his neck. He survived thanks to a variety of treatments, including a radical tonsillectomy and neck dissection to remove 42 lymph nodes, seven weeks of chemotherapy, radiation and a feeding tube.

But if Mendelsohn’s cancer had been discovered today, just four years later, it would have been classified as Stage 1. That’s because HPV-related oral cancers now have a high survival rate through a better response to treatment, said Meryl Kaufman, a speech pathologist specializing in head and neck cancer management who worked for Emory University’s department of head and neck surgery for 10 years.

“Cancer staging is taking into account the HPV-related cancers,” said Kaufman, who now owns her own practice. “It was kind of all lumped together. The survival rates for people who have HPV-related cancers are much higher than the typical head and neck cancers associated with smoking and drinking.”

For Mendelsohn, finding out that patients with HPV-related cancers likely face easier treatments and higher success rates made him extremely happy.

“If I was diagnosed and I heard Stage 1 instead of Stage 4, while it’s still cancer, it would make me feel like I could beat it,” said Mendelsohn, who made a video for his children a month after his diagnosis with advice for their lives after he was gone. “When I hear Stage 4 to Stage 1, I think people have hope they can beat it. My hope is that it will give people hope that they can beat this.”

As a cancer survivor, the Florida resident wants to give hope to other patients. He talks to people throughout the world every month and is creating a worldwide survivor patient network to connect cancer survivors with patients.

“While cancer is scary, Stage 1 is a lot less scary than Stage 4,” Mendelsohn said. “Stage 4 was overwhelming. When I was looking for information, there was nothing out there that made me feel like I was going to be OK. What I’m trying to do is give people hope and let them know that it’s all temporary.”

Another way Mendelsohn is trying to reach those affected by cancer is through his website, supermanhpv.com. He shares his story, news articles featuring him and oral cancer caused by HPV, and information for survivors, patients and caregivers.

The site also features Mendelsohn’s blog, putting himself out there so people can see that someone who, just four years ago, was diagnosed with Sage 4 cancer is now a Peloton-riding, travel-loving cancer advocate.

“People see me and say (they) can’t believe (I) had cancer three to four years ago,” Mendelsohn said. “I was in bed 18 hours a day for a month. I was choking on my saliva for a month. I was consuming five Ensures a day and two Gatorades a day through a feeding tube in my stomach. If people going through that can see me working out, going on the bourbon tour in Louisville. I’ve been on an Alaskan cruise. I’ve been to the Caribbean. I’ve been to the Grand Canyon.”

Mendelsohn, who started his campaign to raise awareness of HPV and oral cancer by raising money for the Ride to Conquer Cancer in Washington, now serves on the board of the Head and Neck Cancer Alliance. The organization’s goal is to advance prevention, detection, treatment and rehabilitation of oral, head and neck cancers through public awareness, research, advocacy and survivorship.

“I feel like it’s gone from me raising money for a bike ride to me on two boards helping create awareness and raise inspiration and creating a survivor patient network,” Mendelsohn said. “Now it’s not about me and my three doctors. Now it’s about helping people with diagnosis globally. There are great doctors. I think we’re going to do great things.”

One way to help prevent children from getting cancer caused by HPV when they grow up is the Gardasil vaccine, which protects against HPV Strain 16, which causes oral cancer. Mendelsohn said 62 percent of college freshmen and three-quarters of adults by age 30 have HPV.

But he doesn’t tell people to get the vaccine. Instead, he advises parents to talk to their kids’ doctors about the benefits and risks.

“I talk about the importance of oral cancer screenings when they’re at the dentist,” he said. “And if you feel a bump on your neck, go to your ENT. I had no symptoms and just a bump on my neck, but I was diagnosed with Stage 4. I’ve had so many tell me that they didn’t know the vaccine is for boys. They thought it was just for girls.”

Kaufman said that the HPV vaccine is recommended for use in boys and girls and that it’s important for the vaccine to be given before someone becomes sexually active. The vaccine won’t work if a person has already been exposed to HPV, as most sexually active adults have been, she said.

Men are much more likely to get head and neck cancer from HPV.

“Usually your body fights off the virus itself, but in some people it turns into cancer,” Kaufman said. There hasn’t been specific research that the HPV vaccine will protect you from head and neck cancer, she said, “but if you’re protected against the strains of HPV that cause the cancer, you’re probably less likely to get head and neck cancer.”

Treatment for this cancer isn’t easy, Kaufman said. Radiation to the head and neck can affect salivary glands, which can cause long-term dental and swallowing issues. Treatment can affect the skin, taste and the ability to swallow.

“A lot of people have tubes placed,” she said. “It’s not easy. It depends on how well you respond to the treatment.”

While getting the vaccine can help protect against various cancers, awareness about head and neck cancer is the key. And knowing the signs and symptoms — such as sores in the mouth, a change in voice, pain with swallowing and a lump in the neck — is important.

“If one of those things lasts longer than two weeks, you should go to your doctor,” Kaufman said. “This can affect nonsmokers and nondrinkers. It’s not something that people expect. The more commonplace it becomes and the less stigma, the better.”

With oral cancer on the rise, dentists can play an important role

Source: http://exclusive.multibriefs.com
Author: Tammy Adams

Today’s dental professionals routinely see and deal with many issues and conditions that were not so common just a few short decades ago. For example, there has been a marked increase in the incidence of oral cancer in the United States, sparking the need for regular oral cancer screening as part of a preventive dental checkup. This additional screening is now routinely performed in many dental practices across the nation.

The American Cancer Society estimates that around 50,000 Americans are infected with oral cancer each year. In past generations, oral cancer was mostly linked to smoking, alcohol use or a combination of the two. But even as smoking rates have fallen, oral cancer rates have risen (especially in men), and researchers have concluded that this is likely caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted disease.

Early diagnosis makes a difference
Oral cancer is often only discovered when the cancer has metastasized to another location, most commonly the lymph nodes of the neck. Prognosis at this stage of discovery is significantly worse than when it is caught in a localized intraoral area.

According to the Oral Cancer Foundation, the best way to screen for HPV-related oral and oropharyngeal cancer is through a visual and tactile exam given by a medical or dental professional, who will also perform an oral history taking to ask about signs and symptoms that cover things that are not visible.

Most of the symptoms of a developing HPV-positive infection are discovered by asking questions, using a test, a light or other device.

ADA supports dental industry with this growing challenge
In 2017, a panel of experts convened by the American Dental Association (ADA) Council on Scientific Affairs published a clinical practice guideline called the “Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation of Potentially Malignant Disorders in the Oral Cavity.”

The goal of this guideline is to inform dentists, orthodontists and other dental professionals about triage tools for evaluating lesions, including potentially malignant disorders, in the oral cavity. If you’re a dentist or an orthodontist, the ADA offers the following considerations concerning the diagnosis of oral and oropharyngeal cancers:

  • Clinicians should obtain an updated medical, social and dental history as well as perform an intraoral and extraoral conventional visual and tactile examination in all adult patients.
  • For patients with suspicious lesions, clinicians should immediately perform a biopsy of the lesion or refer the patient to a specialist.
  • Salivary and light-based tools are not recommended for evaluating lesions for malignancy.

If you are a dental professional and want to learn more about the dental industry’s role in addressing the rising occurrence of oral cancer, visit the ADA’s Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer page.

April, 2018|Oral Cancer News|

Management strategies for oral potentially malignant disorders

Source: www.medscape.com
Author: Joel M. Laudenbach, DMD

Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) include oral leukoplakia (OL), oral erythroplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, oral lichen planus, proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, and actinic keratosis. Once an OPMD has been clinically diagnosed, execution of management strategy is critical. When formulating the strategy, healthcare providers should consider histopathology, lesion characteristics (ie, surface texture, unifocal, multifocal), lesion location in the mouth (ie, tongue, floor of mouth), patient risk factor assessment, and a detailed medical/cancer history.

In this newly published article, Nadeau and Kerr[1] detail various parameters surrounding evaluation and management of OPMDs. The authors make it clear that OPMDs are challenging, each with their own nuances regarding risk for malignant transformation. For example, when OL is unifocal, nonhomogeneous, nodular, or verrucous, there is a much higher chance of the OL becoming dysplastic (12.63-fold) or demonstrating a focus of carcinoma (8.9-fold) when compared with homogeneous types of OLs.[1]

Provider knowledge of these variables is critical when counseling patients about their diagnosis and management options and when selecting interventions along with follow-up care. Although progression to malignancy is difficult to predict with OPMDs, clinicians can account for multiple risk factors such as smoking/alcohol status, high-risk location in the oral cavity, and size of lesion (>200 mm2) to help formulate a tailored management plan for each patient. Consultation with an oral pathologist to discuss the histologic appearance in the context of specific patient history and lesion characteristics can provide additional perspective and/or recommendations.

Modifiable oral cavity cancer risks related to tobacco and heavy alcohol use should be communicated to patients with OPMDs so that they are able to make changes that may lead to regression/disappearance of certain lesions such as OL. Providers confronted with patients who use tobacco and/or heavy alcohol can integrate recommendations for cessation of tobacco[2] and alcohol[3] because they are both established, independent, causative agents for oral cavity cancer and OPMDs.

Available treatment strategies for OPMDs include surgical removal/ablation, photodynamic therapy, and surveillance. The authors make a clear point with supportive studies that traditional surgical excision of dysplastic OPMDs may decrease malignant transformation (MT) risk, yet it does not fully eliminate that risk and, in some instances, has not changed the MT risk when compared with surveillance alone. Appropriate surgical margin identification for OPMDs is clinically challenging. The authors note that smaller excisional margin sizes (1-2 mm) without marginal histologic assessment are common surgical management goals for OPMDs.[1]

Viewpoint
Nadeau and Kerr carefully outline updated considerations for all OPMDs. Healthcare providers involved in screening, diagnosing, referring, and/or managing patients with OPMDs should be well versed in standards of care, including baseline biopsy goals, tobacco/alcohol cessation, currently available interventions, and surveillance care.

Clinicians should also develop a local team of practitioners who are experts in diagnosis and management of OPMDs to help patients obtain the best opportunity for positive outcomes. I encourage readers with interest to retrieve and review the full article by Nadeau and Kerr as a strategy to update your knowledge base and to continue to improve overall morbidity, mortality, and survival rates related to OPMDs.

References:
1. Nadeau C, Kerr AR. Evaluation and management of oral potentially malignant disorders. Dent Clin North Am. 2018;62:1-27.

2. US Preventive Services Task Force. Final recommendation statement. Tobacco smoking cessation in adults, including pregnant women: behavioral and pharmacotherapy interventions. September 2015. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/tobacco-use-in-adults-and-pregnant-women-counseling-and-interventions1 Accessed March 1, 2018.

3. US Preventive Services Task Force. Final recommendation statement. Alcohol misuse: screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care. May 2013. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document
/RecommendationStatementFinal/alcohol-misuse-screening-and-behavioral-counseling-interventions-in-primary-care Accessed March 1, 2018.

March, 2018|Oral Cancer News|

HPV is causing an oral cancer epidemic in men by outwitting natural defenses

Source: www.philly.com
Author: Marie McCullough, staff writer

Five years ago, when actor Michael Douglas candidly revealed that his throat cancer was linked to having oral sex, two things happened.

He made headlines that mortified his family. And he helped publicize the fact that a pervasive, sexually transmitted virus called HPV was unleashing an epidemic of oral cancer among men.

Since then, scientists have made headway in figuring out why HPV, the human papillomavirus, has this glaring gender bias. Men are four times more likely than women to be diagnosed with oral cancer, a hard-to-detect, hard-to-treat disease that has overtaken cervical cancer as the most common HPV-related malignancy in the United States.

To be sure, changes in sexual norms over the last few generations have played a role in this alarming trend. But research increasingly shows the real problem is something men have practically no control over: their immune response.

Compared with women, men are more likely to get infected with HPV — including “high-risk” cancer-causing strains. They also are less able to wipe out infection on their own, and more likely to get reinfected. The reasons are unclear.

“There is good evidence that men acquire oral infections more readily than women, even if they have similar sex practices,” said Ashish A. Deshmukh, a University of Florida HPV researcher. “And more than the acquisition, it’s the persistence of the virus. The clearance rate is not that fast in men.”

Michael Becker of Yardley has stepped up as the face of this immunological inequity. The 49-year-old former biotech executive is health-conscious, clean-living, happily married for 26 years – and battling terminal oropharyngeal cancer, the medical term for malignancies in parts of the mouth and throat.

He’s also battling the misconceptions and ignorance that keep too many parents from protecting their pubescent children — especially boys — against HPV-driven cancers. Two shots. That’s all it takes for the leading vaccine, Gardasil, to prevent most cervical cancers, less common genital malignancies, and the disease that is killing Becker.

“I can’t tell you how many emails I got from parents after the CBS segment,” he said, referring to a national television interview last month. “They said, ‘What do you mean this vaccine is for boys?’ and ‘What do you mean oral cancer incidence has eclipsed cervical cancer?’ ”

An inescapable virus
HPV is a family of more than 100 virus types that can live in the flat, thin cells on the surface of the skin, cervix, vagina, anus, vulva, penis, mouth, and throat. The virus is spread through contact with infected skin, mucous membranes, and bodily fluids. Some types can be passed during intercourse or — as Douglas pointed out — oral sex. While virtually all sexually active people will get infected at some point, the virus is usually wiped out by the immune system without so much as a symptom.

But not always.

In the cervix, persistent infection with high-risk HPV types can lead to precancerous changes that, left alone, slowly turn malignant. Fortunately, the Pap smear enables the detection and removal of abnormal cells before cancer develops. What’s more, age-related changes in cervical cells reduce the risk that HPV will take hold there as women get older.

No such screening test exists for oropharyngeal sites – the tongue, soft palate, tonsils, the throat behind the nasal cavity – and symptoms usually don’t appear until cancer is advanced. Becker, for example, had metastatic disease by the time he noticed a lump under his jaw line in late 2015.

Traditionally, smoking and heavy alcohol use are the big risk factors for oral cancer, but the non-HPV tumors linked to these bad habits have been declining in recent years. HPV-related tumors, in contrast, have increased more than 300 percent over the last 20 years. The virus is now found in 70 percent of all new oral cancers.

About 13,200 new HPV oral cancers are diagnosed in U.S. men each year, compared with 3,200 in women, according to federal data. Treatment — surgery, chemotherapy, radiation — can have disfiguring, disabling side effects. About half of late-stage patients die within five years.

Natural defenses go awry
Oral HPV infection rates are skewed by gender, just like the resulting cancers. The latest national estimates of this disparity, published in October, come from Deshmukh and his University of Florida colleagues. They used a federal health survey that collected DNA specimens to estimate that 7.3 percent of men and 1.4 percent of women have oral infections with high-risk HPV types. That translates to 7 million men and 1.4 million women.

The chance of oral infection increases for women as well as men who have simultaneous genital HPV infections or a history of many sex partners, but male infection rates still far surpass female rates.

Patti Gravitt, an HPV researcher at George Washington University, believes these estimates are a bit oversimplified because women counted as uninfected may actually have undetectably low virus levels, or HPV may be hiding in a dormant state in their cells.

Still, Gravitt said the study is in line with others that suggest “men are more susceptible to HPV viral infection than women.”

In women, an HPV infection usually sets off the body’s defense mechanisms. The immune system makes antibodies that kill off the invader, then immune cells remain on guard, ready to attack if the virus reappears.

But in men, something goes awry. The HIM study — for HPV in Men — documented this by collecting genital, anal, and oral samples from 4,100 unvaccinated men in Florida, Mexico and Brazil between 2005 and 2009. The samples were tested for the presence of two high-risk HPV types and two that cause genital warts.

Among 384 men who developed infections during a 24-month period, only 8 percent produced antibodies. But this response rate varied depending on the site of infection; none of the small number of orally infected men produced antibodies.

Rather than putting the immune system on guard and protecting men from the virus, infection sharply increased the chance of getting infected again with the exact same HPV type. And many men who got reinfected were celibate at the time.

How could this be? Anna R. Giuliano, the researcher at the Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa, Fla., who led the HIM study, said recurring infections may be due to reactivation of dormant virus, or to auto-inoculation – the man spreads infection from one part of his body to another. Or to something else entirely.

While the scientific understanding of this puzzle is evolving, one implication is clear. “HPV vaccination is the only reliable method to ensure immune protection against new HPV infections and subsequent disease in males,” Giuliano and her co-authors declared in a recent paper.

Becker hammers that message – when he is not being hammered by chemotherapy – using his self-published memoir and his blog. This week’s blog gave a shout-out to Sunday’s first-ever International HPV Awareness Day, declared by Giuliano and other members of the International Papillomavirus Society.

Becker realizes that the novelty of the vaccine, the complexity of HPV, and its link to sex are obstacles to immunization. But he focuses on the life-saving aspect.

“Parents are being asked to vaccinate their 11-year-old child and they can’t imagine 30 or 40 years down the line, it will prevent cancer,” Becker said. “If you don’t know it’s connected to six cancers, you’re not going to care. So it really should be cast as an anti-cancer vaccine.”

March, 2018|Oral Cancer News|

Chronic heartburn might increase chance of neck, head cancers

Source: www.upi.com
Author: HealthDay News

Millions of American seniors suffer the discomfort of chronic acid reflux. Now, new research suggests the condition might raise their odds for even more dangerous foes — head and neck cancers.

The research can’t prove cause-and-effect, and the odds of any one person with chronic heartburn developing one of these relatively rare cancers remains low, experts noted.

But the study of nearly 28,000 Americans over the age of 65 did show a heightened risk.

Overall, a history of gastroesophageal reflux disease — the clinical term for chronic heartburn — was linked to nearly triple the odds of developing cancers of the voice box (larynx); about a 2.5 greater odds for cancers of the pharynx (top of the throat); a doubling of risk for cancers of the tonsils; and a 40 percent higher odds for cancers in the sinuses.

Head and neck cancers of the respiratory and upper digestive tracts cause more than 360,000 deaths worldwide each year, the researchers noted.

The new study was led by Dr. Edward McCoul, of the Ochsner Clinic Foundation in New Orleans, and published Thursday in the journal JAMA Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery.

One gastroenterologist said the findings aren’t surprising, given what’s known about the effect of acid reflux on sensitive tissues.

“Reflux material from the stomach can rise high in to the esophagus, the food tube between the mouth and the stomach,” explained Dr. Anthony Starpoli. He said the same juices “can invade the throat, sinus passages and the lungs, causing [chronic] inflammation.”

The link between GERD and another tumor type, esophageal cancer, is already well-known, said Starpoli, associate director for esophageal endotherapy at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City.

In the new study, McCoul’s team tracked data from 13,805 U.S. seniors who’d had cancers of the respiratory and upper digestive tracts between 2003 and 2011. Their medical histories were then compared to the same number of similarly aged people without cancer.

While the study found an association between GERD and head-and-neck cancers, McCoul’s team stressed that the data they sourced did not include information about each patient’s smoking and drinking history. Both of those habits are major risk factors for head and neck cancers, the study authors noted, so more investigation is needed to tease out the findings.

Dr. David Hiltzik directs otolaryngology at Staten Island University Hospital in New York City. Reading over the findings, he agreed that the study wasn’t designed to prove cause-and-effect.

But Hiltzik believes chronic heartburn remains a potential carcinogen and needs to be treated when it occurs.

“We know clinically that acid reflux causes problems throughout life in these areas in the head and neck,” he said. “This study reinforces the fact that we need to address these issues early and perhaps more aggressively. I believe patients should be more aware of how their daily diet and behavioral habits can have serious long-term effects.”

More information
The U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases has more on acid reflux.

December, 2017|Oral Cancer News|

Oral sex increases men’s risk of cancer, new study finds

Source: www.deccanchronicle.com
Author: staff

An alarming new study found men who have performed oral sex on five or more partners are at risk of head and neck cancer related to HPV, according to a report by the Daily Mail.

Johns Hopkins researchers warn men may not be aware of this risk, particularly if they smoke. “Among men who did not smoke, cancer-causing oral HPV was rare among everyone who had less than five oral sex partners, although the chances of having oral HPV infection did increase with number of oral sexual partners, and with smoking,” lead author Dr Amber D’Souza, associate professor at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health told the Daily Mail.

For the study, data was analysed of 13,089 people part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and tested for oral HPV. That information was compared to data with federal figures on oropharyngeal cancer diagnoses. The results indicated that men had a higher risk of developing the disease compared to women.

The new study’s findings suggest it is crucial for boys to get the HPV vaccine.

While there are 100 different kinds of HPV, only few cause cancer. HPV strains 16 and 18 trigger most cervical cancer. HPV16 also causes oropharyngeal cancer.

Identifying who is at risk is will help curb the disease. “For these reasons, it would be useful to be able to identify healthy people who are most at risk of developing oropharyngeal cancer in order to inform potential screening strategies, if effective screening tests could be developed,” Dr D’Souza told the Daily Mail.

Further research to explore oral HPV infection in young healthy men is currently being conducted.

The study was originally published in the journal Annals of Oncology.

October, 2017|Oral Cancer News|

Halving radiation therapy for HPV-related throat cancer offers fewer side effects, similar outcomes

Source: www.eurekalert.org
Author: Mayo Clinic press release

Mayo Clinic researchers have found that a 50 percent reduction in the intensity and dose of radiation therapy for patients with HPV-related throat cancer reduced side effects with no loss in survival and no decrease in cure rates. Results of a phase II study were presented today at the 59th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology in San Diego by Daniel Ma, M.D. a radiation oncologist at Mayo Clinic.

“A common approach for treating HPV-related throat cancer is a combination of surgery followed by daily radiation therapy for six to 6½ weeks,” says Dr. Ma. “However, the radiation treatment can cause a high degree of side effects, including altered taste, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, stiff neck and damage to the jaw bone.” Dr. Ma says that patients with HPV-related throat cancer tend to be young and, once treated, are likely to live a long time with possibly life-altering side effects from the standard treatment. “The goal of our trial was to see if an aggressive reduction of radiation therapy (two weeks of radiation twice daily) could maintain excellent cure rates, while significantly reducing posttreatment side effects, improving quality of life and lowering treatment costs.”

Researchers followed 80 patients with HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer with no evidence of residual disease following surgery and a smoking history of 10 or fewer pack years. That’s the number of years smoking multiplied by the average packs of cigarettes smoked per day.

At two years following the aggressively de-escalated treatment, the rate of tumor control in the oropharynx (throat) and surrounding region was 95 percent. Of the 80 patients in the trial, only three experienced a local cancer recurrence. One patient experienced a regional cancer recurrence. Patient quality of life largely improved or did not change following treatment, except for some dry mouth.

“Patients in our trial had a very dramatic reduction in side effects, compared with standard treatment,” says Dr. Ma. “For example, no patient in our trial needed a feeding tube placed during dose-reduced treatment; whereas, close to a third of patients had feeding tubes placed with traditional radiation therapy doses on other recent clinical trials.” Dr. Ma says the reduction in side effects did not lead to any reduction in cure rate, as survival rates were similar to traditional survival rates for HPV-related throat cancer.

September, 2017|Oral Cancer News|

Big tobacco fuels nicotine replacement addiction, UCSF study shows

Source: http://www.sfgate.com
Author: Lizzie Johnson
Date: August 17, 2017

Nicotine patches, lozenges, inhalers and gum have long been marketed as ways of helping addicts break the habit. But such products by themselves won’t do the job — something tobacco companies themselves have taken advantage of to boost their profits, new research from UCSF says.

Nicotine replacement therapy products, which have been sold over the counter at drugstores since 1996, are effective only when paired with counseling, according to a UCSF study released Thursday. Without that, relying on such products can actually make it harder to kick tobacco, the study found.

UCSF researchers who reviewed millions of pages of internal tobacco company documents said the firms have long known that such products by themselves don’t wean users off cigarettes, and market their own smokeless nicotine to keep users addicted.

“Those products should not be used unless they are done in the proper way,” said Stanton Glantz, an author of the study, professor of medicine at UCSF and the director of the Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education.

“The problem is, without the behavioral support, they actually inhibit quitting,” he said. “Unfortunately, a lot of people think they are making progress and quitting when that’s not so. That’s what tobacco companies have known for decades. They’re developing products under the guise of nicotine replacement therapy.”

Some of the biggest tobacco companies, including RJ Reynolds, Philip Morris and British American Tobacco, have developed nicotine accessories. Many corner stores stock the products, some of them in brightly colored packages, next to chocolate bars and other candy near the cash register.

Medi-Cal and many private health insurance policies cover the cost of quitting aids. State-subsidized insurance will pay for two annual courses of treatment with pills such as Chantix and Zyban, Nicorette lozenges, Nicorette gum and NicoDerm CQ Patches.

But people are more likely to use those products as complements to smoking — at work or in airplanes when cigarettes are banned — instead of as a tool to quit, the UCSF study found. Nicotine replacement products can be effective if people combine them with counseling and consultation with a doctor, but the majority of consumers don’t use them that way, researchers said.

Randomized clinical trials cited in the study showed that people who went to counseling and tapered their use of nicotine replacement therapy products over time were successful. Those who didn’t were not.

A 2009 study in the BMJ — formerly known as the British Medical Journal — found that of the 2,767 smokers tested, only 6.75 percent were able to abstain from cigarettes for six months while using nicotine replacement therapy products.

Nicotine patches and gum were first approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1984, and the tobacco industry originally saw them as a threat, the UCSF study said. By 1992, however, company executives determined such products would not help smokers quit, and that there was money to be made from them. By 2009, tobacco companies were selling their own nicotine patches, lozenges and e-cigarettes.

“It was surprising to discover the industry came to view NRT (nicotine replacement therapy) as just another product,” said Dorie Apollonio, an associate professor in clinical pharmacy at UCSF and lead author of the study. “The tobacco companies want people to get nicotine — and they’re open-minded about how they get it.”

Representatives of RJ Reynolds, Philip Morris and British American Tobacco did not respond to requests for comment.

Apollonio’s researchers analyzed 90 million pages of documents from seven tobacco companies dating back as far as 1960, obtained in litigation against the tobacco industry.

Those papers showed that the tobacco industry began developing its own nicotine replacement products after its research showed that some smokers used them in addition to tobacco.

“The way the marketing is framed, it is explicitly discouraging quitting,” Glantz said. “The tobacco companies know more about tobacco products than anybody else. Now they are selling these products in a way that protects their market. I do not think most health professionals are aware of this.”

But some are. Derek Smith, director of the San Francisco Department of Public Health’s Tobacco Free Project, said he encourages smokers to check with their pharmacists or doctors before trying a nicotine replacement therapy like a patch or pill.

“You can’t plop on a patch and expect to quit smoking,” he said. “It’s part of the arsenal to tackle this complicated addiction. Smokers know better than anyone how hard it is to quit. It takes eight or 10 times before it sticks. In my experience, they are really aware what a tough addiction it is and how a patch isn’t the magical solution.”

A free smoking cessation program offered by the city at San Francisco General Hospital funnels smokers through a seven-class session. The weekly meetings teach participants how to create a plan with a quit date and identify stressful situations that lead to smoking. Instructors teach them to drink more water and improve their diet to help cope with cravings.

Patches, gum and e-cigarettes can be useful tools, Smith said. It didn’t surprise him that the tobacco industry had started creating its own products.

“Those internal documents reveal their intentions,” he said. “It’s always fascinating to see how the tobacco industry is thinking. They have an opportunistic assessment of the market. It never ceases to amaze me.”

August, 2017|Oral Cancer News|