polyphenols

Caffeinated coffee lower oral cancer risk

Source: articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com
Author: staff

A new American Cancer Society study has found a strong inverse association between caffeinated coffee intake and oral/pharyngeal cancer mortality.

The researchers revealed that people who drank more than four cups of caffeinated coffee per day were at about half the risk of death of these often fatal cancers compared to those who only occasionally or who never drank coffee.

coffee

But they said that more research is needed to elucidate the biologic mechanisms that could be at work.

Previous epidemiologic studies have suggested that coffee intake is associated with reduced risk of oral/pharyngeal cancer. To explore the finding further, researchers examined associations of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea intake with fatal oral/pharyngeal cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II, a prospective U.S. cohort study begun in 1982 by the American Cancer Society.

Among 968,432 men and women who were cancer-free at enrollment, 868 deaths due to oral/pharyngeal cancer occurred during 26 years of follow-up. The researchers found consuming more than four cups of caffeinated coffee per day was associated with a 49 percent lower risk of oral/pharyngeal cancer death relative to no/occasional coffee intake (RR 0.51, 95 percent confidence interval.

A dose-related decline in relative risk was observed with each single cup per day consumed. The association was independent of sex, smoking status, or alcohol use. There was a suggestion of a similar link among those who drank more than two cups per day of decaffeinated coffee, although that finding was only marginally significant. No association was found for tea drinking.

The findings are novel in that they are based specifically upon fatal cases of oral/pharyngeal cancer occurring over a 26-year period in a population of prospectively-followed individuals who were cancer-free at enrollment in Cancer Prevention Study II.

“Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, and contains a variety of antioxidants, polyphenols, and other biologically active compounds that may help to protect against development or progression of cancers,” said lead author Janet Hildebrand, MPH.

“Although it is less common in the United States, oral/pharyngeal cancer is among the ten most common cancers in the world. Our finding strengthens the evidence of a possible protective effect of caffeinated coffee in the etiology and/or progression of cancers of the mouth and pharynx. It may be of considerable interest to investigate whether coffee consumption can lead to a better prognosis after oral/pharyngeal cancer diagnosis,” she added.

The study is published online in the American Journal of Epidemiology.

December, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Green tea’s status as a ‘superfood’ grows: A study finds it even abolishes bad breath (it already helps prevent cancer and heart disease)

Source: www.dailymail.co.uk
Author: staff

Green tea can help beat bad breath, according to scientific research.

The study found that antioxidants in the tea, called polyphenols, destroy a number of compounds in the mouth that can lead to bad breath, tooth decay and even mouth cancer.

The study from Israel’s Institute of Technology will add to green tea’s status as one of nature’s so-called ‘superfoods’.

It is already said to help prevent cancer and heart disease and lower cholesterol – and even ward off Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.

Writing in the Archives of Oral Biology, the scientists called for more studies, adding: ‘All together, there is increasing interest in the health benefits of green tea in the field of oral health.’

Green tea is made from the same plant as black tea but processed in a different way that means it retains less caffeine and more polyphenols.

It has been drunk in China and the Far East for thousands of years and is fast becoming popular in Britain particularly because of its health benefits. It is also more likely to be drunk without milk or sugar so it tends to contain fewer calories too.

The study, published in the journal Archives of Oral Biology, examined the properties of the polyphenol called epigallocatechin 3 gallate (EGCG) in particular.

It reported: ‘EGCG constitute the most interesting components in green tea leaves.

‘Tea polyphenols possess antiviral properties, believed to help in protection from influenza.

‘Additionally green tea polyphenols can abolish halitosis through modification of odorant sulphur components.

‘Oral cavity, oxidative stress and inflammation consequent to cigarettes’ deleterious compounds may be reduced in the presence of green tea polyphenols.’

March, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Berry Nutrition

Source: www.foodproductdesign.com
Author: Marie Spano, M.S., R.D., Contributing Editor

Nutritionally speaking, good things come in sweet—and tart—little packages. Research is discovering berries pack a nutritional punch due to their vitamin, fiber and antioxidant content.

Botanically speaking, berries are indehiscent fruits (they don’t need to be opened to release their seeds) that ripen through the ovary wall. However, any small, edible fruit with multiple seeds is typically considered a berry.

In addition to lending flavor and brilliant colors to a wide variety of dishes, all berries are packed with an array of antioxidants, nutrients and potential health benefits. Berries that are especially antioxidant-rich include fresh crowberries, bilberries, black currants, wild strawberries, blackberries, blueberries, goji berries, sea buckthorn, blueberries and cranberries. However, the antioxidant content of berries varies based on the geographical growing condition. And, while fresh berries are an excellent source of antioxidants, total phenol content drops during processing. In fact, processed berry jams and syrup contain approximately half the antioxidant capacity of fresh berries, and juices show the greatest loss of anthocyanins and tannins due to the removal of seeds and skin (Nutrition Journal, 2010; 9:3; Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Jan 13, 2012).

Botanical berries
Shiny, scarlet-colored cranberries are rich in vitamin C, loaded with antioxidants, including flavonoids, and score higher in their ORAC score than many other fruits (“Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods—2007”, USDA ARS). Cranberries are perhaps best known for the role their juice plays in the prevention of urinary tract infections (UTI) in women, particularly those with recurrent UTIs (Cochrane Database Systems Review, 2008; 23:CD001321). However, cranberries may also inhibit the growth and proliferation of some types of cancer cells (Journal of Nutrition, 2007; 137:186S-193S), reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and platelet aggregation, and improve vascular function (Nutrition Reviews, 2010; 68:168-177; Nutrition Reviews, 2007; 65:490-502). In addition, polyphenols isolated from cranberries appear to inhibit the formation of cariogenic bacteria and reduce both inflammation and the production of enzymes that contribute to the destruction of the extracellular matrix in periodontal disease, making them beneficial for oral health (Journal of the Canadian Dental Association, 2010; 76:a130).

Processing and storage affects the phytochemicals found in cranberries. Anthocyanins are present at much higher levels than flavonols in cranberries, but the reverse is true for cranberry juice, due, in part, to the instability of anthocyanins. Some flavonols are also degraded during processing but to a lesser extent than anthocyanins (Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2009; 49:741-781).

Also leading the nutritional way is the tiny blueberry. According to the U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council, Folsom, CA, blueberries are packed with vitamin C, dietary fiber, potassium and antioxidants, with a total of 6,552 ORAC units per 100 grams. Further, many studies have indicated blueberry supplementation can help mitigate age-related neurodegenerative diseases. In one study, for example, rats fed 18.6 grams of dried blueberry extract per kilogram of diet for eight weeks showed a reversal of age-related deficits in brain and behavioral function (The Journal of Neuroscience, 1999; 19:8,114-8,121). The phytochemicals in blueberries also may help protect against some cancers. A study that identified blueberry anthocyanins also determined their ability to inhibit the growth of colon, breast, oral and, especially, prostate cancer cell lines. The same study showed blueberries were effective in inducing cell death of colon-cancer cells (Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2006; 54:9,329-9,339).

Other less commonly consumed berries show promising health benefits. Though relatively few health-related studies have been conducted using black, white and red currants, one study using mixed berries, including currants, found that consumption of two portions of berries daily (including black currant purée on alternating days) resulted in favorable changes in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, blood pressure and platelet functioning (American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008; 87:323-331). Red and black currants are an excellent source of vitamin C, and black currants are also an excellent source of fiber and good source of manganese and potassium.

Wolfberries, otherwise known as goji berries, contain several antioxidants, notably zeaxanthin, one of the two antioxidants found in the retina of the eye. One double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy elderly subjects found that, compared to placebo, daily supplementation with goji berry (13.7 grams per day) for 90 days increased plasma zeaxanthin and antioxidant levels while protecting from hypopigmentation and soft drusen accumulation (yellow deposits under the retina) in the macula of the eye (Optometry & Vision Science, 2011; 88:257-262). Additional studies have found that goji berry juice improves antioxidant biomarkers in healthy humans (Nutrition Research, 2009; 29:19-25), subjective feelings of well-being, neurologic and psychologic performance and gastrointestinal functioning (Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2008; 14:403-412).

More research needs to be done on the health benefits of gooseberries and muscadine grape berries, but they, too, have a great nutrition profile. Gooseberries are an excellent source of vitamins A and C, and a good source of potassium and fiber. Muscadine grape berries are an excellent source of manganese, a good source of fiber and contain reseveratrol (American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 1996; 47:57-62).

Non-botanical berries
In addition to the nutrition attributes for botanical berries, non-botanical berries, including strawberries, chokeberries, blackberries and raspberries, are also loaded with nutrients and antioxidants.

Strawberries are an excellent source of vitamin C and also contain fiber, vitamins, potassium and phytonutrients. Animal research has shown that strawberries improve indices of memory and cognitive functioning (Current Opinion in Clinical & Metabolic Care, 2009; 12:91-94), while human intervention studies indicate that strawberries (in addition to chokeberries, cranberries and blueberries; fresh, as juice or freeze-dried) lead to significant improvements in LDL oxidation, lipid peroxidation, dyslipidemia and glucose metabolism (Nutrition Reviews, 2010;6 8:168-177).

Chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa) contain a mix of many antioxidants, including procyanidins, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. A review of studies to date on chokeberries indicate they may be a promising functional food for diseases related to oxidative stress, but more rigorous scientific research is necessary (Phytotherapy Research, 2010; 24:1,107-1,114).

Blackberries are an excellent source of vitamin C and fiber. Studies show anthocyanin-rich fractions of blackberry extracts reduce UV-induced free radical damage to skin cells (Phytotherapy Research, 2012; 26:106-112), and freeze-dried blackberries reduce esophagus and colon cancer development in rodents (Nutrition and Cancer, 2006; 54:69-78).

Raspberries are an excellent source of vitamin C, manganese and dietary fiber, and a good source of vitamin K. However, much of the interest in raspberries stems from their anthocyanin and ellagic acid content. In vitro studies show ellagic acid is protective against cancer (Journal of Nutrition and Biochemistry, 2004; 15:672-678). And this antioxidant, as well as the overall antioxidant capacity of raspberries, is similar in fresh commercial, freshly picked and frozen raspberries (Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2002; 50:5,197-5,201).

All berries are full of antioxidants and nutrients. And, the various colors, textures and different forms of berries, including frozen, fresh, dried and pulp, make berries a versatile, nutritious, eye-appealing and tasty addition to a variety of foods and beverages.

About the author:
Marie Spano, M.S., R.D., CSCS, is a nutrition communications expert whose work has appeared in popular press magazines, e-zines and nutrition-industry trade publications. She has been an expert guest on NBC, ABC and CBS affiliates on the East Coast.

February, 2012|Oral Cancer News|

Blueberries contain vital polyphenols that could contribute to a decline in obestiy

Source: Medical News Today

Last week it was reported that strawberries may help treat throat cancer, now a new study shows how blueberries may aid in curbing obesity.

Plant polyphenols have been shown to fight adipogenesis, which is the development of fat cell, and induce lipolysis, which is the breakdown of lipids and fat. The study was done to evaluate whether blueberry polyphenols play a role in adipocyte differentiation, the process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an adipocyte, an animal connective tissue cell specialized for the synthesis and storage of fat.

Polyphenols occur in all plant foods and contribute to the beneficial health effects of vegetables and fruit. Their contribution to the antioxidant capacity of the human diet is much larger than that of vitamins. The total intake in a person’s diet could amount to 1 gram a day, whereas combined intakes of beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E from food most often is about 100 mg a day.

Phenolic acids account for about one third of the total intake of polyphenols in our diet, and flavonoids account for the remaining two thirds. Flavonoids are further subdivided into several categories.

Shiwani Moghe, a graduate student at Texas Woman’s University said:

“The promise is there for blueberries to help reduce adipose tissue from forming in the body I wanted to see if using blueberry polyphenols could inhibit obesity at a molecular stage. We still need to test this dose in humans, to make sure there are no adverse effects, and to see if the doses are as effective. This is a burgeoning area of research. Determining the best dose for humans will be important.”

Phenolic acids are simple molecules such as caffeic acid, vanillin, and courmaric acid. Phenolic acids form a diverse group that includes the widely distributed hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids. Phenolic acid compounds seem to be universally distributed in plants. They have been the subject of a great number of chemical, biological, agricultural, and medical studies. Hydroxycinnamic acid compounds (p-coumaric, caffeic acid, ferulic acid) occur most frequently as simple esters with hydroxy carboxylic acids or glucose, while the hydroxybenzoic acid compounds (p-hydroxybenzoic, gallic acid, ellagic acid) are present mainly in the form of glucosides. Ellagic acid is found in Pomegranate.

Furthermore, phenolic acids may occur in food plants as esters or glycosides conjugated with other natural compounds such as flavonoids, alcohols, hydroxyfatty acids, sterols, and glucosides. Coffee is particularly rich in bound phenolic acids, such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Phenolic acids found in blueberries include gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, coffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid.

The study was performed in tissue cultures taken from mice. The polyphenols showed a dose-dependent suppression of adipocyte differentiation. The lipid content in the control group was significantly higher than the content of the tissue given three doses of blueberry polyphenols.

The highest dose of blueberry polyphenols yielded a 73% decrease in lipids; the lowest dose showed a 27% decrease.

Red wine also has anthocyanosides, catechins, proanthocyanidins, stilbenes and other phenolics.

Several studies have shown that a group of polyphenol antioxidant compounds found in grapes, green tea, soybeans and wine may lower the risk of a range of cancers, but exactly how these powerful compounds work has remained unclear.

April, 2011|Oral Cancer News|

Cancer risk reduction study reports green tea extracts may protect against oral cancer

Source: baileyshealthstore.wordpress.com
Author: staff

Over 50 per cent of participants in the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center study experienced a clinical response to the green tea extracts, according to findings published in Cancer Prevention Research.

“While still very early, and not definitive proof that green tea is an effective preventive agent, these results certainly encourage more study for patients at highest risk for oral cancer,” explained the research team.

“The extract’s lack of toxicity is very crucial in prevention trials. It’s very important to remember that these are otherwise healthy individuals and we need to ensure that agents studied produce no harm,” they added.

Green tea contains between 30 and 40 per cent of water-extractable polyphenols, while black tea (green tea that has been oxidized by fermentation) contains between 3 and 10 per cent. Oolong tea is semi-fermented tea and is somewhere between green and black tea.

The four primary polyphenols found in fresh tealeaves are epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), and epicatechin (EC).

The study followed 41 people with oral leukoplakia, a condition is a sign of oral cancer risk. The participants were assigned to receive either placebo or green tea extract at one of three doses, including 500 milligrams or 1,000 mg three times a day.

The researchers collected oral tissue biopsies, which they say was “essential in that it allowed us to learn that not only did the green tea extract appear to have benefit for some patients, but we pointed to anti-angiogenic effects as a potential mechanism of action,” they explained.

Almost 60 per cent of people taking the two highest doses of the green tea extracts had a clinical response. Just over 36 per cent of people in the lowest extract dose group had a clinical response, compared to 18 per cent in the placebo group, said the researchers.

At an extended follow-up with a mean of 27.5 months, 15 participants had developed oral cancer, with a median time to disease development of 46.4 months.

Commenting on the safety, the researchers noted that side effects such as insomnia and nervousness were mostly only recorded in the high-dose group. None of these produced no significant toxicity, they added.

“While these are encouraging findings, much more research must be done before we can conclude that green tea may prevent oral or any other type of cancer. It’s also important to remind people that this trial enrolled very few participants who, at the highest dose levels took the equivalent of eight cups of green tea three times a day,” cautioned the researchers.

“We need to further understand if green tea offers longer-term prevention effects for patients,” they added. Future studies with such high-risk people investigate the effects of longer supplementation periods, said the researchers.

According to the American Cancer Society, more than 35,720 are expected to be diagnosed with oral and/or pharynx cancer and the five year survival rate is less than 50 per cent.

Source: Cancer Prevention Research

Green tea shows promise as chemoprevention agent for oral cancer, M. D. Anderson study finds

Source: www.eurekalert.org
Author: press release

Green tea extract has shown promise as cancer prevention agent for oral cancer in patients with a pre-malignant condition known as oral leukoplakia, according to researchers at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

The study, published online in Cancer Prevention Research, is the first to examine green tea as a chemopreventative agent in this high-risk patient population. The researchers found that more than half of the oral leukoplakia patients who took the extract had a clinical response.

Long investigated in laboratory, epidemiological and clinical settings for several cancer types, green tea is rich in polyphenols, which have been known to inhibit carcinogenesis in preclinical models. Still, clinical results have been mixed.

“While still very early, and not definitive proof that green tea is an effective preventive agent, these results certainly encourage more study for patients at highest risk for oral cancer,” said Vassiliki Papadimitrakopoulou, M.D., professor in M. D. Anderson’s Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, and the study’s senior author. “The extract’s lack of toxicity is attractive – in prevention trials, it’s very important to remember that these are otherwise healthy individuals and we need to ensure that agents studied produce no harm.”

In the Phase II dose-finding study, 41 M. D. Anderson oral leukoplakia patients were randomized between August 2002 and March 2008 to receive either green tea extract or placebo. Participants took the extract, an oral agent, for three months at one of three doses – 500 per meter squared of body mass (mg/m2); 750 mg/m2 or 1,000 mg/m2 – three times daily. To best assess biomarkers, participants also underwent a baseline and 12-week biopsy, an important component in the design of the study, the researchers say.

“Collecting oral tissue biopsies was essential in that it allowed us to learn that not only did the green tea extract appear to have benefit for some patients, but we pointed to anti-angiogenic effects as a potential mechanism of action,” said Anne Tsao, M.D., assistant professor in the Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, and the study’s first author. “While preliminary because our patient population was so small, this gives us direction for further study.”

Of those taking green tea at the two highest doses, 58.8 percent had a clinical response, compared with 36.4 percent in the lowest extract dose and 18.2 percent in the placebo arm. At an extended follow-up with a mean of 27.5 months, 15 participants had developed oral cancer, with a median time to disease development of 46.4 months.

Although not statistically significant, the green tea extract also improved histology and trended towards an improvement in a number of biomarkers that may play a vital role in predicting cancer development.

Another important finding, say the researchers, was that that the extract was well tolerated. Side effects, including insomnia and nervousness, were mostly seen in the high-dose group but produced no significant toxicity.

“While these are encouraging findings, much more research must be done before we can conclude that green tea may prevent oral or any other type of cancer. It’s also important to remind people that this trial enrolled very few participants who, at the highest dose levels took the equivalent of eight cups of green tea three times a day,” said Papadimitrakopoulo. “We need to further understand if green tea offers longer-term prevention effects for patients.”

Papadimitrakopoulo and Tsao think that future studies with green tea in this high-risk population should focus on participants being exposed to the supplement for a longer time period. The researchers also stressed that the green tea extract studied in this trial was never sold over-the-counter and/or the Internet, both of which are not highly regulated. Rather, the compound was exclusively developed as a pharmaceutical.

According to the American Cancer Society, more than 35,720 are expected to be diagnosed with oral and/or pharynx cancer and the five year survival rate is less than 50 percent.

Note:
1. The study was funded by Ito En, the company that produced the green tea extract.
2. In addition to Papadimitrakopoulou and Tsao, other M. D. Anderson authors on the study include: Waun Ki Hong, M.D., professor and chair of the Division of Cancer Medicine; Jack Martin, D.D.S., professor in the Department of Dental Oncology; Li Mao, M.D., adjunct professor and Xi Ming Tang, M.D., Ph.D. research scientist, both of the Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology; Adel El-Naggar, M.D., Ph.D., professor in the Department of Pathology; Iganacio Wistuba, M.D., professor in the Department of Pathology-Research; Kirk Culotta, Phar M.D., Department of Pharmacy Pharmacology Research; Ann Gillenwater, M.D., professor in the Department of Head and Neck Surgery; J. Jack Lee, Ph.D., professor and Diane Liu, both of the Department of Biostatistics. Other authors include Yuko Sagesaka of Ito En, Ltd.

November, 2009|Oral Cancer News|