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Global oral cancer rapid test kit market headed for growth and global expansion by 2016 – 2024

Source: ww.medgadget.com
Author: staff, Persistence Market Research

Oral cancer is one of the largest group of cancers, which comes under category of Head and Neck cancer. It includes lips, tongue, throat, sinuses, and floor of the mouth. About 90% of the oral cancers are squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). According to the Oral Cancer Foundation in 2016, around 48,250 people are diagnosed with oral cancer in the U.S. and has relatively low survival rates. The death rates due to oral cancer are relatively higher due to lack of proper diagnosis test, which can detect oral cancer at the early stage. Hence, early stage diagnosis is an alternative solution that helps prevent the deaths of people infected by oral cancer. The Conventional diagnostic tests available in the market are time-consuming and costly. Currently, very few technologies are available in the market for routine screening of the oral cancers. Hence, companies are trying to develop the Oral Cancer Rapid Testing Kit (OCRTK), which can detect the stage of cancer effectively in less time to perform test at home/clinic. Vigilant biosciences developed ‘OncAlert Oral Cancer LAB Test’, which is accurate, cost effective, and uses non-invasive technology. This technology also got the CE mark in Europe that enables this product to sell all over Europe. Various companies and universities are trying to develop the rapid detection technology for oral cancer kits to detect oral cancer

The increase in usage of tobacco, which includes smokeless tobacco, HPV-induced cancers, and consumption of alcohol are major factors that drive the growth of the market. Furthermore, increase in awareness and aging population also contribute to the prevalence the oral cancers. According to the cancer research center in U.K, globally over 3,000,000 persons were diagnosed with oral cancer. Smoking is a major factor that is turning many men and women into victims of oral cancer. In U.S., black males are having high incidence rate than their whiter counterparts because of cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol consumption. Lack of new diagnostic technologies in the market is a major factors that is limiting the growth of the OCRTK market.

OCRTK will have higher impact in the oral cancer diagnosis market because currently there very few rapid test kits available in the market to diagnose the oral cancer. Government organizations are actively funding companies that are operating in OCRTK. This highlights the importance of this domain. Factors like low cost, easy process, and instant results are expected to drive the growth of the market.

On the basis of product segmentation, OncAlert Oral Cancer LAB is expected to hold major market shares of the OCRTK market as it is the only available product in the market with clinical effectiveness. On the basis of principle, sensor-based devices will have a relatively higher share due to its highly sensitive nature and precision results.

On the basis of End User, hospitals, and diagnostic centers hold major market share comparatively than the research centers and consumers as mainly all the operations are carried out in hospitals and diagnostic centers. However, in future the end user is expected to shift their preference towards the consumer as companies are developing techniques to perform tests easily at home.

OCRTK market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America and Middle East & Africa. North America is expected to hold relatively high market share due to factors such as growing awareness about the disease and rise in the aging population. However, Asia Pacific region and European regions also might have good market due to increase in incidence of oral cancer.

Some key players in the market are Vigilant Biosciences, Abviris Deutschland GmbH, Insilixa, and University of Sheffield.

On the basis of development of the OCRTK market, startups and universities are more actively working on this domain as compared to the major market players. Hence, there are possibilities of acquisitions and collaborations to take place within these companies/institutes in the near future.

December, 2016|Oral Cancer News|

Mouth cancer rates soar over 20 years

Source: www.sciencedaily.com
Author: staff

A new Cancer Research UK analysis reveals that rates of mouth (oral) cancer have jumped by 68 per cent1 in the UK over the last 20 years. The figures — released during Mouth Cancer Action Month — reveal the cancer is on the rise for men and women, young and old, climbing from eight to 13 cases per 100,000 people over the last two decades.

For men under 50, the rate has jumped by 67 per cent in the last 20 years2 — going up from around 340 cases to around 640 cases each year. For men aged 50 and over, rates have increased by 59 per cent climbing from around 2,100 cases to around 4,400 cases annually.

Oral cancer is more common in men, but there have been similar increases women3.

In women under 50, oral cancer rates have risen by 71 per cent in the last 20 years, with annual cases climbing from around 160 to around 300. Rates for women over 50 have also gone up by 71 per cent, with cases increasing from around 1,100 to around 2,200.

Around nine in 10 cases are linked to lifestyle and other risk factors. Smoking is the biggest avoidable risk factor, linked to an estimated 65 per cent of cases. Other risk factors include alcohol, diets low in fruit and vegetables, and infections with the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV).

Oral cancers include cancer of the lips, tongue, mouth (gums and palate), tonsils and the middle part of the throat (oropharynx)4.

Cancer Research UK — working with the British Dental Association — has developed an oral cancer toolkit5 to help GPs, dentists, nurses and hygienists spot the disease and refer suspected cases sooner.

Jessica Kirby, Cancer Research UK’s senior health information manager, said: “It’s worrying that oral cancer has become more common. It’s important to get to know your body and what’s normal for you, to help spot the disease as early as possible. An ulcer or sore in your mouth or tongue that won’t go away, a lump on your lip or in your mouth, a red or red and white patch in your mouth or an unexplained lump in your neck are all things to look out for. Speak to your GP or dentist about any changes that are unusual or don’t go away.

“Healthy lifestyles can help reduce the risk of developing the disease in the first place. Not smoking, drinking less alcohol and eating plenty of fruit and vegetables can all help to cut our risk of mouth cancer. HPV vaccination could help protect against oral HPV infections, and it can prevent a range of cancers associated with the HPV virus, so it’s a good idea to get the vaccine if you are offered it.”

With smoking being the biggest preventable cause of oral cancer, Cancer Research UK is also calling on the public and local councillors to help protect vital Stop Smoking Services. These specialist services are the most successful way for people to quit smoking.

Andrea Fearon, 47 from Newbury, was diagnosed in 2013 with mouth cancer after a routine checkup by her dentist.

Andrea said: “I had thought that most people with mouth cancer are heavy smokers over the age of 50, so I completely shocked when I was diagnosed with the disease. I’m proof that this type of cancer isn’t limited to a particular age or sex. I thought seeing the dentist was about looking after your teeth — but it can save your life. It’s thanks to my dentist that the mouth cancer was caught early — that’s why I feel so lucky to be alive.”

Notes:
1. Based on oral cancer incidence rates for all ages, persons, from 8 cases per 100,000 people between 1993-1995 to 13 cases per 100,000 people between 2012-2014.

2. Based on oral cancer incidence rates, for males aged 0-49, the rise is from two cases per 100,000 males between 1993-1995 to three cases per 100,000 males between 2012-2014. For men aged 50 and over, this rise is from 26 cases per 100,000 between 1993-1995 to 41 cases per 100,000 men between 2012-2014.

3. Based on oral cancer incidence rates, for females aged 0-49 years, the rise is from one case per 100,000 females between 1993-1995 to two cases per 100,000 females between 2012-2014.

For women aged 50 and over, the rise is from 11 cases per 100,000 women between 1993-1995 to 18 cases per 100,000 women between 2012-2014.

Cases are based on the number of new diagnoses between 1993-1995 and between 2012-2014.

4. Oral cancer includes ICD-10 C00-C06, C09-C10 and C12-C14 (which include the lip, tongue, mouth, oropharynx, piriform sinus, hypopharynx and other and ill-defined sites of the lip, oral cavity and pharynx).

For the latest oral cancer statistics visit the Cancer Research UK statistics webpage http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/health-professional/cancer-statistics/statistics-by-cancer-type/oral-cancer

5. The toolkit covers the signs to look out for, how to respond, as well as possible risk factors for oral cancer. The toolkit also features a detailed image library, a referral guide, case studies, examination videos and a CPD accredited quiz.

Story Source:
Materials provided by Cancer Research UK. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

November, 2016|Oral Cancer News|

For this cancer, ‘stage 4’ isn’t as bad as it sounds

Source: www.omaha.com
Author: Steve Hendrix – The Washington Post

Hearing the word “cancer” in a doctor’s office is bad enough. Hearing “stage 4” invokes even more dread. When I learned I had stage 4 HPV-related oral cancer, I didn’t know exactly what it meant, but I knew there wasn’t a stage 5.

Doctors use the standardized staging system to describe the location, size and extent of a cancer and its spread throughout the body. Using data on the treatment and survivability of each particular kind of cancer, clinicians combine these factors to produce a number from stage 1 (a small tumor confined to one spot) to stage 4 (a cancer that has spread, either to a single adjacent lymph node or to distant organs).

My cancer was stage 4A, a small tumor at the base of my tongue that had spread to a single lymph node in my neck.

My doctor immediately tried to soften the blow. There were problems with the staging rules as they applied to this kind of cancer, he said. HPV oropharyngeal cancers, while potentially fatal, were far more treatable than other oral cancers, particularly the ones related to tobacco and alcohol use that were used to define the staging standards.

He was right. A study published in the Lancet early this year found that the current guidelines lead to needless panic for the newly diagnosed. “At the present time, most patients with HPV+ oropharyngeal cancer are told they have (stage 4) disease, but the reality is that their outlook is similar to that of patients with the most curable malignant diseases,” the study authors wrote.

This month, the American Joint Committee on Cancer is releasing new guidelines for HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer staging that will ease patient fears and make it easier for doctors to offer less-invasive treatment options.

“It’s remarkable,” said my own physician, Arjun Joshi of George Washington University. “Under the new system, you would only be a stage 1.”

November, 2016|Oral Cancer News|

HPV and mouth cancer

Source: www.hippocraticpost.com
Author: Thea Jourdan

hpv

Mouth cancer kills nearly 2000 people in the UK each year. The Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) of which there are over 100 different types, is more commonly associated with cervical cancer and genital warts, but it can also cause oral cancer, particularly of the back of the tongue and tonsils. The virus incorporates itself into the cell’s DNA and causes the cell to multiply out of control, leading to cancer.

In Britain, the number of mouth and throat cancers have increased by 40 per cent in just a decade, to 6,200 cases a year. According to Cancer Research UK, the HPV virus, which is transmitted to the mouth region from the genitals during oral sex, may be key to the ‘rapid rise’. Statistics also show that the more sexual partners you have the greater your chance of acquiring mouth cancer.

“There is now scientific evidence that a proportion of mouth and throat cancers are linked to HPV infection,” says Hazel Nunn, head of health information at Cancer Research UK. “We know that HPV is found in the mouth but we do not yet know how it gets there – whether through oral sex or otherwise. HPV virus has been found on the fingers and elsewhere on the body. It is possible that oral sex is having an impact but more research needs to be done into the kinds of behaviour that leads to this infection.”

“HPV has been causing mouth cancer for decades but the link is only now becoming clear. HPV is a hardy virus that likes sitting in lymphoid tissue wherever it is in the body,” explains Professor Mark McGurk, a senior consultant ENT surgeon based at London Bridge Hospital in London. That means it thrives in the lymphoid tissue in the mouth, including that of the tonsils and at the base of the tongue. For the same reason, it settles in the cervix, the vulva and around the anus.

For many people, HPV won’t cause any problems at all. “In fact, we know that 80 per cent of women and men will have the HPV infection at some time in their lives and clear it themselves without any symptoms,” explains Mr Mike Bowen, a consultant obstetrician and gynacologist based at St John and St Elizabeth Hospital in London. “But for a few it can cause cellular changes that lead to cancer.”

Professor McGurk says that over the last 30 years, he has seen a rise in oropharyngeal cancer, which typically affects sexually active men in their 50s and 60s. “They may have been infected with the virus for some time and ,” he explains. The cancer reveals itself as growths on the tonsils and back of the tongue.

Many patients are only diagnosed at the late stage of their disease. Michael Douglas, the actor, already had stage 4 cancer when his cancer was recognized. Fortunately, oral cancer caused by HPV is very treatable, even when it is very advanced, using radiotherapy. “We used to do surgery on these cases, but we don’t need to anymore. In many cases, the cancer simply melts away with radiotherapy,” explains Professor McGurk. Patients with stage 1 and 2 Oral cancer caused by HPV have an 85 per cent chance of surviving for 5 years after treatment, and patients with stage 4 disease have a 60 per cent chance of surviving five years – impressive compared to the survival rates for other types of oral cancer where overall survival is 50 per cent over 5 years. [Cancer Research UK]

Cancer research UK is pushing for all mouth tumors to be tested to see if they are HPV positive, to assist with effective treatment of patients. “At the moment, it varies massively depending on what hospital you are in. We think it should be standard,” says Hazel Nunn.

Professor McGurk believes there is a simple explanation why men are more likely to have HPV in their mouths than women. “Women harbor the virus in their genitalia which provides a hospitable environment while the male penile area is a relatively hostile area for the virus to settle.”

One way to try and turn the tide would be to introduce a HPV vaccination for boys and girls before they become sexually active. Girls from the age of 12 in the UK have been offered vaccinations since 2008 against the two most common strains of HPV -16 and 18- which are linked to cervical cancer.

Boys are not offered the vaccine, but this should change, according to Professor Margaret Stanley, a virologist based at Cambridge University who believes that boys must be given the vaccine for HPV too from the age of 12 or 13.

‘Obviously cervical cancer is the big one but the other cancers – cancers of the anus and increasingly the tonsil and tongue – there is no screening for them and no way of detecting them until they are proper cancers and they are more common in men than in women.’

Hazel Nunn of Cancer Research UK points out that there is no evidence that vaccinating boys will help protect them from oral cancer. “It is theoretically possible but there have been no trials that had this as an end point. There is a danger that we get too far ahead of ourselves without evidence-based medicine.”

She insists that although HPV is a worrying factor, by far the most significant risks associated with mouth and throat cancers of all types are smoking and alcohol. “

November, 2016|Oral Cancer News|

The startling rise in oral cancer in men, and what it says about our changing sexual habits

Source: www.washingtonpost.com
Author: Ariana Eunjung Cha

Oral cancer is on the rise in American men, with health insurance claims for the condition jumping 61 percent from 2011 to 2015, according to a new analysis.

oc2

The most dramatic increases were in throat cancer and tongue cancer, and the data show that claims were nearly three times as common in men as in women during that same period with a split of 74 percent to 26 percent.

The startling numbers — published in a report on Tuesday by FAIR Health an independent nonprofit — are based on a database of more than 21 billion privately billed medical and dental claims. They illustrate both the cascading effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the United States and our changing sexual practices.

The American Cancer Society estimates that nearly 50,000 Americans will be infected this year, with 9,500 dying from the disease. In past generations, oral cancer was mostly linked to smoking, alcohol use or a combination of the two. But even as smoking rates have fallen, oral cancer rates have remained about the same, and researchers have documented in recent studies that this may be caused by HPV.

HPV infects cells of the skin and the membranes that lines areas such as the mouth, throat, tongue, tonsils, rectum and sexual organs. Transmission can occur when these areas come into contact with the virus. HPV is a leading cause of cervical, vaginal and penile cancers.

Surveys have shown that younger men are more likely to perform oral sex than their older counterparts and have a tendency to engage with more partners.

“These differences in sexual behavior across age cohorts explain the differences that we see in oral HPV prevalence and in HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer across the generations and why the rate of this cancer is increasing,” Gypsyamber D’Souza, an associate professor in the Viral Oncology and Cancer Prevention and Control Program at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, said at the time. The work was published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases.

In February, researchers at the American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting reported that men are not only more likely to be infected with oral HPV than women but are less likely to clear the infection. It’s not known why oral HPV is more aggressive in men.

oc1

HPV is an extremely common virus that has infected nearly 80 million, or one in four, people in the United States. Fortunately, the risk of contracting HPV can be greatly reduced by a vaccine. HPV has become a public health priority in recent years with dozens of countries recommending universal vaccination. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that children get it at the age of 11 or 12, although they may get vaccinated as early as 9 years old. The CDC said earlier this month that young people who get it before the age of 15 need two doses rather than the typical three.

A CDC study has found that although fewer teenagers and young adults are having sex than in previous years, more are engaging in oral sex than vaginal intercourse under the assumption that it’s safer.

“However, young people, particularly those who have oral sex before their first vaginal intercourse, may still be placing themselves at risk of STIs or HIV before they are ever at risk of pregnancy,” the researchers wrote in the 2012 report.

October, 2016|Oral Cancer News|

Forgotten patients: New guidelines help those with head-and-neck cancers

Source: www.fredhutch.org
Author: Diane Mapes and Sabrina Richards

Stigma, isolation and medical complexity may keep patients from getting all the care they need; recommendations aim to change that.

Like many cancer patients, Jennifer Giesel has side effects from treatment.

There’s the neuropathy in her hands, a holdover from chemo. There’s jaw stiffness from her multiple surgeries: an emergency intubation when she couldn’t breathe due to the golf ball-sized tumor on her larynx and two follow-up surgeries to remove the cancer. And then there’s hypothyroidism and xerostomia, or dry mouth, a result of the 35 radiation treatments that beat back the cancer but destroyed her salivary glands and thyroid.

“I went to my primary care doctor a couple of times and mentioned the side effects,” said the 41-year-old laryngeal cancer patient from Cleveland, who was diagnosed two years ago. “She was great but she didn’t seem too knowledgeable about what I was telling her. She was like, ‘Oh really?’ It was more like she was learning from me.”

Patients like Giesel should have an easier time communicating their unique treatment side effects to health care providers with the recent release of new head-and-neck cancer survivorship guidelines. Created by a team of experts in oncology, primary care, dentistry, psychology, speech pathology, physical therapy and rehabilitation (with input from patients and nurses), the guidelines are designed to help primary care physicians and other health practitioners without expertise in head-and-neck cancer better understand the common side effects resulting from its treatment. The goal is that they’ll then be able to better make referrals or offer a holistic plan for patients to get the support they need.

“Head-and-neck cancer survivors can have enormous aftereffects from the disease and treatment by virtue of the location of the primary tumor,” said Dr. Gary Lyman, a public health researcher with Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center who helped create the guidelines. “There are functional interruptions, like losing the ability to talk, eat or taste. And some of the surgeries can be disfiguring.

“I’m really glad the American Cancer Society decided to take this on,” he said. “These guidelines are sorely needed, long overdue and will serve cancer patients who are incredibly affected — both physically and emotionally.”

Currently, there are more than 430,000 head-and-neck cancer, or HNC, survivors in the U.S., accounting for around 3 percent of the cancer patient population.

As with many other cancers, HNC is an umbrella term for a number of different malignancies, including cancers that develop in or around the mouth, tongue, throat, nose, sinuses or larynx. Brain, thyroid and esophageal cancer are not considered head-and-neck cancers.

HNC has traditionally been linked to tobacco and alcohol use, and about 75 percent of HNC are related to these risk factors. Increasingly, though, human papillomavirus, or HPV, is causing a significant number of head-and-neck cancers (another reason why the HPV vaccine is such an important prevention tool).

An isolating group of diseases
For some patients with HNC, there can be a certain amount of stigma and isolation, due to its association with drinking and smoking. Treatment can also isolate patients since it sometimes mars a person’s appearance or alters their speech.

Some patients, literally, have no voice.

HNC’s complicated nature — it’s not one disease but several, all of which behave and respond to treatment differently — also results in very small patient populations, which can hinder research.

“Head-and-neck cancer patients have historically been somewhat ignored,” said Lyman, an oncologist with Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Fred Hutch’s treatment arm. “Many view this as a lifestyle-associated cancer, like lung cancer, heavily influenced by tobacco exposure and [drinking] alcohol to excess. And people may have difficulty dealing with the appearance of some of the more severely affected patients.”

t’s a sentiment echoed by Dr. Eduardo Méndez, a Fred Hutch clinical researcher and head-and-neck cancer surgeon at SCCA.

“It’s in a location that affects your appearance, it affects your ability to speak and to swallow, and those are all things that you need to interact with others,” he said. “It can have an effect of shutting you down from the rest of society. Even the treatment for head-and-neck cancer can have consequences that affect those very same things that the tumor was affecting — swallowing, speech, appearance.”

Not surprisingly, many HNC survivors suffer from depression and/or body image and self-esteem issues after diagnosis and treatment.

“I struggle with body image issues every day,” said Beci Steelman, a 42-year-old court clerk from Bushnell, Illinois, who went through radiation and eight surgeries, including a total right maxillectomy (a surgery of the upper jaw), after being diagnosed with a rare head and neck tumor in 2010.

“You can see that my eye looks like someone’s pulling it halfway down my cheek,” she said. ”My mom and I just call it my googly eye and joke that I have ‘really good face days’ and others that are just ‘face days.’ Clearly something’s not right. When I smile, you can see a bit of metal from the obturator, this weird rubbery dental piece that plugs the hole in the roof of my mouth. Some days I just feel like I’m so ugly.”

Holistic approach benefits patients
There is good news with these cancers: most patients are diagnosed with HNC in its early, most curable stages.

“The majority will be completely functional and normal [after treatment],” said Dr. Christina Rodriguez, the medical oncologist who oversees the majority of HNC patient care at SCCA.

According to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, around 80 to 90 percent of early stage patients (stage 1 and 2) go into remission after receiving surgery or radiation. Advanced stage patients (stage 3 and 4) receive more aggressive treatment and have lower cure rates, with the exception of patients with HPV-related head-and-neck cancers. Their 5-year cure rates are close to 90 percent.

But even those who go into remission may have to contend with a constellation of difficult side effects.

The head and neck area is “like a fine-tuned machine,” said Dr. Keith Eaton, a medical oncologist at SCCA and Fred Hutch who specializes in lung cancer and HNC. “There are so many dedicated structures that we can’t do without. If you get rid of half your liver, not a problem. If your epiglottis doesn’t work, you aspirate.”

In addition to trouble with swallowing and speech, stiffness in the jaw and problems with shoulder and neck mobility, HNC patients can be left with hypothyroidism, hearing loss, taste issues, periodontitis and lymphedema, the swelling that comes after lymph nodes are surgically removed, a common step in cancer treatment. Because of this complexity, patients need a holistic approach, said Méndez.

Steelman’s cancer extended to the orbital floor of her right eye which meant she had to undergo extensive surgery to her face including the removal of four back teeth, an incision to the roof of her mouth and the shortening of a jaw muscle.

“They got the tumor out and then put me back together,” she said. “I feel like Humpty Dumpty.”

She now wears a prosthetic (which requires daily maintenance) and has had injectable fillers to help with the atrophy around her right eye (an implant in the area became infected and had to be removed). She’s lost hearing in her right ear, her speech is sometimes “a little marble-y,” she has dry mouth from damage to her salivary glands and her jaw will not open as wide as it once did.

Steelman tapped a number of specialists to help her deal with these issues, including an otolaryngologist (ear, nose and throat doctor), speech pathologist, a prosthodontist (an expert in the restoration and replacement of teeth) and a plastic surgeon.

“You have to be your own advocate,” she said. “You learn that very quickly.”

Get help early
Physical therapists, speech pathologists, dietitians and providers with expertise in palliative and pain care (also called supportive care) can improve survivors’ quality of life enormously, especially when therapy is started early.

“Careful — and early — attention to side effects and treatment-related complications can help optimize survivors’ quality of life,” said Eaton, the SCCA oncologist.

Dr. Elisabeth Tomere, a physical therapist at SCCA, said she and her colleagues prescribe exercises that help patients regain strength, range of motion and tissue flexibility that surgery and/or radiation may have diminished. Some patients, for instance, need help building up their trapezius muscle to improve shoulder function they have lost after neck surgery. Others need to learn movements that strengthen the front of their necks and the muscles needed to maintain posture.

Patients with lymphedema in the face and neck — a common side effect from HNC treatments — can also benefit from early intervention by a physical therapist, said Tomere.

“These issues are all helpful to address as quickly as possible so they’re not ongoing,” she said, adding that it may take up to two years for patients to mentally and physically recover from treatment.

“We try to give people a realistic timeline,” she said.

The new ACS guidelines should help providers without expertise in head-and-neck cancers find the right specialists for their patients, she said.

Cancer physical therapy, while new, is becoming more standard. Both the American Physical Therapy Association and the Lymphology Association of North America allow providers or patients to search for specialized physical therapists near them — a boon to primary care providers who are not “connected to that world,” said Tomere.

Dietitians can play a key role, too, since many HNC patients struggle to eat. Treatments can cause dry mouth, taste changes or make chewing difficult. Food can become unappetizing or difficult to ingest.

“There’s an emotional component. Food becomes medicine,” said Linda Kasser, an SCCA dietitian and specialist in oncology nutrition. Patients must eat to keep their weight up, “but it can become exhausting … Sometimes they need to force themselves to eat. They feel pressured, which can contribute to family tensions and even food aversions.”

Dietitians can offer approaches to help patients maintain their weight and strength, from using new cooking strategies to make food more palatable to recommending temporary feeding tubes inserted into the stomach that help patients avoid the pain of chewing and swallowing altogether. They also help alleviate patients’ worries about food and separate “nutrition fallacy from fact,” said Kasser.

Not surprisingly, communication is strongly emphasized in the guidelines.

“We wanted to make sure that there is open communication between the providers and caregivers,” said Lyman. “That there’s a care plan that the patient understands and the caregiver understands. All the different specialists involved in the care should be on the same page.”

The new guidelines also emphasize lifestyle choices that will help to reduce the risk of HNC recurrence and secondary cancers: smoking cessation, limiting use of alcohol, regular exercise and good oral hygiene.

Exciting new research
Chemotherapy, radiation and surgery remain the standard of care for HNC — and drive many of the side effects covered by the new ACS care guidelines — but recent advances are making researchers like Méndez very optimistic for future care.

Thanks to advances in genomics, researchers now know that the mutations found in head and neck tumors vary widely.

“One size will not fit all,” said Méndez. “Treatment will have to be individualized.”

Méndez is leading efforts at Fred Hutch to develop tailored therapies based on the cancer’s genomic mutations, zeroing in on cancer cells’ “Achilles heels” — molecular pathways that tumor cells rely on to survive but that normal cells can do without. The approach is already paying dividends: Méndez is currently leading a clinical trial of a drug he and his team identified that exploits a vulnerability unique to head and neck tumors missing a key gene called p53.

“Once we understand the genotype driving tumor growth, strategies [for treatment] can become more targeted, more effective and less toxic,” he said.

New robotic-assisted surgery has also transformed the procedure for certain patients with tumors in the larynx and at the base of the tongue, allowing surgeons to perform fewer incisions and better preserve functions like swallowing and speech, he said.

Immunotherapy also looks like a very promising path to better HNC treatments.

“New immunotherapy drugs are getting FDA approval for head and neck cancer,” said Méndez. “I think in the next few years we will see it moving to a first-line therapy. It’s a very exciting time for head and neck cancer.”

For patients like Steelman and Giesel, that’s great news.

“I had a social worker who helped me get through the thick of [treatment], but nobody talked about what it would be like when treatment was over,” said Giesel, who had to teach herself how to swallow food a new way (she no longer has an epiglottis). “I thought I’d be returned to myself and I’d be fine, but it was not like that in any way.”

These new guidelines, she said, will help patients like her get the help they truly need.

“Primary care doctors need to know about the physical and emotional effects,” she said. ”I have a lot of good support and know how to ask for help, but I can’t imagine how [patients] who don’t know how to ask for help explain how they’re feeling.”

Do you or someone you love have a head-and-neck cancer? Join the conversation about treatment challenges and how the new guidelines might help on our Facebook page.

About the authors:
Diane Mapes is a staff writer at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. She has written extensively about health issues for NBC News, TODAY, CNN, MSN, Seattle Magazine and other publications. A breast cancer survivor and patient advocate, she writes the breast cancer blog doublewhammied.com and tweets @double_whammied. Reach her at dmapes@fredhutch.org.

Sabrina Richards is a staff writer at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. She has written about scientific research and the environment for The Scientist and OnEarth Magazine. She has a Ph.D. in immunology from the University of Washington, an M.A. in journalism and an advanced certificate from the Science, Health and Environmental Reporting Program at New York University. Reach her at srichar2@fredhutch.org.

Note:
1. Original article available at: http://www.fredhutch.org/en/news/center-news/2016/04/new-survivorship-guidelines-spotlight-head-and-neck-cancers.html

April, 2016|Oral Cancer News|

A small revolution in cancer treatment by Belarusian and U.S. scientists

Source: http://eng.belta.by/
Author: Igor Belotserkovsky

Scientists from Belarus and the United States have developed a new method for detecting residual cancer cells. This method also contributes to their destruction. This is done with the help of nanobubbles generated in some cancer cells. The method was successfully tested on laboratory mice with implanted head and neck cancer cells. Although scientists are only at the beginning of the road, they call their discovery a small revolution in the fight against cancer.

The results of the research titled “Intraoperative diagnostics and elimination of residual microtumors with plasmonic nanobubbles” was published in the prestigious science journal Nature Nanotechnology on 15 February. To learn more about the successes of oncologists, BelTA talked to Igor Belotserkovsky, PhD in Medical Sciences, one of the authors of the research, the leader of the head and neck tumor research team at the Aleksandrov National Cancer Center.

Mr Belotserkovsky, what is the share of head and neck tumors in the structure of other localizations?
In the total structure of oncological morbidity, the share of head and neck tumors is 3-4% (excluding skin cancer). Larynx and oral cavity cancer are diagnosed most frequently. For example, in 2014 laryngeal cancer was detected in 604 Belarusians, oro-pharyngo-laryngeal cancer in 1,338 people. Men fall ill ten times more often.

Despite the fact that head and neck cancers are categorized as tumors of outside localization, many patients with cancer have their disease diagnosed when it has already reached an advanced stage. This is due to the social aspect. In most cases cancer patients are alcohol and smoking abusers. In 2014, 50% of laryngeal cancer cases were found at an early stage, as was 30% of cases of oral cavity cancer.

Why has it been decided to test the new method specifically on head and neck tumors?
Head and neck account for 9% of the total body surface area. Yet, this is where many important organs are located. If one of these organs is affected by cancer, oncologists have to work in a small body region. When removing a tumor, a surgeon cannot cut out much of the normal tissue surrounding it. He has to remove the parts affected by cancer and ensure no damage is done to vitally important structures.

For this reason, the radicality of head and neck cancer surgeries is strongly debated. Some reputable specialists believe that many head and neck surgeries are conditionally radical. We remove the visible tumor, and some unnoticed microscopic metastatic cancer cells may remain in the body. These cells cause cancer recurrences that are more difficult to treat, because they are more resistant to drugs, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

What is special about this new treatment method?
Its breakthrough nature is seen in our ability to spot and eliminate residual cancer cells during the surgery, right after the removal of the visible tumor. Today there is no fast, accurate and safe method for detection of individual cancer cells and microtumors in the tumor removal zone to be used during the surgery.

The method is based on the utilization of gold nanoparticles and laser radiation to generate nanobubbles inside tumor cells. The nanobubbles, in turn, are detected with an acoustic probe. For this purpose, the gold nanoparticles are decorated with special antibodies that identify cancer cells and gather in clusters only around the tumor, thereby ensuring no damage is done to healthy tissue.

The approach has been successfully tested on lab mice. The animals of the research and control groups underwent the same operations to remove implanted head and neck tumors. With additional minimal surgery conducted after detection of residual cancer cells with plasmonic nanobubbles, the survival rate in the research group was 100%. Meanwhile, the control group mice underwent only a standard surgery and died of progressing tumor. By the way, nanobubbles helped eliminate inoperable microtumors.

The idea is to reduce the frequency of tumor recurrence. The procedure is as follows: a patient gets an injection with gold nanoparticles before the surgery. After the tumor is removed, the tumor bed is treated with laser which activates nanobubbles that quickly expand and burst, ripping apart the residual cancer cells.

We expect that the new method will help reduce the number of local recurrences. It will allow a maximum radical removal of tumors. Oncologists will be able to eliminate cancer cells, which may cause recurrences, at the microlevel.

When do you plan clinical tests?
We are ready to conduct the tests, here in Belarus. Our center has a high level of credibility in research. Foreign companies annually run nearly 30-40 clinical tests in the Aleksandrov National Cancer Center.

However, it is still early to talk about the date for clinical testing of the new method. There is a certain algorithm to follow. It can take up 3 to 4 years from research to the final product.

What are the prospects for the plasmonic nanobubbles technology?
Proceeding from the results of the experiment, we can say it is a small victory over cancer. However, I would like to reiterate that in interpreting our successes we do not go beyond the framework of the experiment. In the future this technology can be used to treat other types of cancer.

How long did the research take? Who financed the studies?
This is a Belarusian-U.S. project launched some three years ago. Dmitry Lapotko, head of laser science at medical nanotechnology group Masimo Corporation, is the leading researcher. The project was financed by Gillson Langenbough Foundation, Houston, TX and the National Science Foundation of the United States.

Thank you for the interview. We wish you every success with this important project.

February, 2016|Oral Cancer News|

Rodeo Insider: Cowboy takes it on himself to ride home a message

Source: www.star-telegram.com
Author: Brett Hoffman
 
0125 rodeoBronc rider Cody Kiser is trying to encourage cowboys to abstain from tobacco. Richard W. Rodriguez Star-Telegram

 

In a day when rodeo riders are approaching the sport from an athletic standpoint more than ever, there’s a heavier emphasis on physical fitness and many competitors are taking a closer look at abstaining from substances such as alcohol and tobacco.

One cowboy attempting to send a message about abstaining from frequent tobacco consumption is bareback bronc rider Cody Kiser.

“A lot of these cowboys don’t smoke or chew, and if they do, it’s really rare,” Kiser said. “A lot of the guys consider themselves as athletes. So they want to keep their bodies at an optimum performance and they don’t want to do anything that would break them down.”

When the Fort Worth Stock Show conducted the opening performance of its 16-day Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association show on Friday, Kiser turned in a bareback score of 80, the highest marking of the night.

As he competed in the renowned rodeo, Kiser wore a patch on his shirt that said: “Oral Cancer Foundation.”

The foundation’s website lists Kiser and a spokesman and states: “The western/rodeo environment has had a long-term relationship with tobacco, and until 2009 the PRCA had a lengthy history of tobacco sponsorship money. While that has ended, tobacco use, and smokeless/spit tobaccos still thrive in the sport. While adults have the right to make any lifestyle choice, they inadvertently expose impressionable young people to what are sometimes harmful habits though poor examples like the use of tobacco products. This is particularly harmful as kids look up to athletes.”

Kiser, 25, who is from Carson City, Nev., aspires to set a great example.

“My message is for the younger generation, to expand the sport of rodeo and help it become more mainstream,” he said. “Rodeo can be like NASCAR. When NASCAR started getting rid of most of their alcohol and tobacco sponsors and then started bringing in sponsors such as Tide and Kellogg, which are more family oriented, then the sport exploded. Today, there’s so much more money in NASCAR and it can become the same for rodeo.”

*This news story was resourced by the Oral Cancer Foundation, and vetted for appropriateness and accuracy.

For the war against oral cancer, what’s in your arsenal?

Source: www.dentistryiq.com
Author: Dennis M. Abbott, DDS

The face of oral cancer has changed: No longer is oral cancer a disease isolated to men over 60 years of age with a long history of smoking and alcohol consumption. Today, the demographic for the disease includes younger people of both sexes with no history of deleterious social habits who are otherwise healthy and active. It spans all socioeconomic, racial, religious, and societal lines. In other words, oral and oropharyngeal cancer is an equal opportunity killer. Today, as you read this article, 24 people in the US will lose their battles with oral cancer. That is one person for each hour of the day, every day of the year. Each of those lost is someone’s sister, a father’s son, a small child’s mommy, or maybe even a person you hold dear to your heart. The truth is, oral and oropharyngeal cancer has several faces . . . and each of those faces is a human being, just like you and me. So how can we, as dental professionals, be instrumental in the war against oral and head and neck cancer?

Views of the oropharynx, the base of the tongue, and the epiglottis, taken with the Iris HD USB 3.0 intraoral camera using different points of focus. Photos courtesy of the author.

Views of the oropharynx, the base of the tongue, and the epiglottis, taken with the Iris HD USB 3.0 intraoral camera using different points of focus.
Photos courtesy of the author.

The answer, as with most other cancers, lies in early detection. When oral and oropharyngeal cancer is detected early, the five-year survival rate can be as high as 80% to 90%. The harsh reality is that most oral and head and neck cancers are only found at late stages after the cancer has advanced—often to the lymph system. As a result, the chance of the person living for five years after diagnosis falls to approximately 55%.

As dentists and dental hygienists, we—like it or not—are on the front line of this war. We often have the opportunity to see potential cancer patients more frequently than our medical colleagues do, and we are trained to see abnormalities inside the mouth and in the head and neck region. (This is a huge part of the solution!) Many of my medical colleagues tell me that they do not have the training to see what I can see in the mouth. But I do not have the training to practice oncological medicine like they do. The truth is, it takes all of us doing our jobs to care and manage the individual person—not just the teeth, not just the liver, not just the breast, but the whole patient.

Years ago, we could almost profile who would or would not be likely to present with oral cancer. It was always the “Marlboro man”—that guy who was older, drank alcohol frequently, and had a smoking pack-year history that was two or three times his age. But those days are long gone. With the recent understanding that the human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States, is an etiological factor for oral and oropharyngeal cancer, virtually everyone is a potential cancer patient. As such, everyone should be screened. While the individual with classic risk factors still remains at risk for developing oral cancer, many who present with HPV-related oral and head and neck cancers have no other discovered risk factors, other than exposure to HPV and an immune system that, for reasons still unknown, will not adequately clear the virus without repercussions.

It is believed that 80% to 90% of all Americans have been exposed to HPV at least once in their lifetimes. Most people manage to clear the virus through the immune system’s normal defense function within six to seven months; in some patients, however, damage takes place at the cellular level that may take months, years, or even decades to manifest as cancer. The majority of HPV-related oral and head and neck cancers present in areas that are difficult for us as dental professionals to visualize, such as the tonsils, the base of the tongue, the oropharynx, the posterior pharyngeal wall, and the larynx. That, however, does not give us an excuse not to screen in these areas . . . we just have to think outside of the box and get creative about how we screen.

Visual inspection combined with palpation remains the essential foundation of screening for oral and oropharyngeal cancers, but where visualization is difficult—such as with the base of the tongue and the lower oropharynx—knowing and asking the right questions can become critically important for identifying potential concerns:
“Are you noticing any unusual hoarseness?”
“Are you having any difficulty swallowing?”
“Do you ever have a sensation as though something is caught in your throat?”
“How long has that tonsil been inflamed?”
“Have you noticed any sinus or allergy issues since that tonsil has been enlarged?”
While these questions may seem unrelated to teeth, they are not unrelated to oral health. Simply asking the right questions can open a dialogue of discovery that may lead to the detection of an oropharyngeal cancer early. And early detection is the key to beating the disease and maintaining a good quality of life during the survivorship years.

Technology-based adjunctive devices to assist the dental professional in the early detection of oral cancer have existed in the market for the past 10 to 15 years. Much has been written about fluorescence and reflective technologies, which help the examiner to detect subtle changes in tissue through the usage of light in the violet and yellow ranges of visible light, respectively. Examination with these wavelength-specific devices enhances visualization by highlighting changes in the oral mucosa and vasculature. Usage of these adjuncts has also demonstrated value in enabling clinicians to better understand the size of affected tissue surrounding suspected lesions. As such, these may be useful in selecting a field for biopsy that may produce clear, or noncancerous, margins.

Since the completion of the Human Genome Project (HGP) in 2003, there exists a more clearly defined understanding of how diseases such as cancer affect our cells at the nucleic acid level and how genetic mutations can serve as risk factors or catalysts for cancerous changes in cells. Technology used in the HGP has also provided insight into the genotyping of viruses, leading to a sharper picture of how viral interaction with our genetic code can lead to disease. Today, the dentist and dental hygienist have this technology readily available to move their practice into the era of personalized health.

Salivary tests, such as the MOP (Molecular Oral Testing) by PCG Molecular, take advantage of innovative, advanced genetic testing to establish the risk or presence of oral or oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. MOP does this by evaluating cellular abnormalities in the oral cavity and oropharynx, DNA damage associated with oral and oropharyngeal cancer, and the presence of HPV. With this information, the clinician can better determine the appropriate course of action for the patient.

Sometimes striving to provide the best possible patient care means thinking outside of the box to use technology designed for one purpose and discovering a new application to meet an unanswered need. Most of us are at least familiar with intraoral cameras, and many of us have them in our offices. Using the magnified imagery of a quality intraoral camera and a high-resolution monitor, this tool is a favorite device for illustrating the need for proposed treatment and for establishing patient trust. But what if we could use those images to possibly save a life?

The Iris HD USB 3.0 intraoral camera by Digital Doc LLC has catapulted intraoral photography into the high-definition age. Using the Iris HD precision optical lens array and an advanced HD sensor from Sony, the Iris HD USB 3.0 provides unmatched 720p-resolution clarity that is perfect for the magnification and photographic capture of suspicious areas discovered during a thorough head and neck examination/oral cancer screening. Because of the size of the camera head, the device even makes it possible to examine areas of the oropharynx that were previously difficult for dentists and hygienists to visualize.

Of course, the camera cannot substitute for laryngeal endoscopy, especially if cancer inferior to the epiglottis is suspected, but the camera’s ability to see beyond the palatopharyngeal arch is an improvement over an angled dental mirror. Most patients can tolerate the necessary posterior placement of the camera to capture an oropharyngeal image either by breathing through the nose or with placement of a topical anesthetic on the posterior soft palate and uvula to suppress the gag reflex.

Regardless of the power of the technology, the ultimate skill in detecting early-stage oral and oropharyngeal cancer lies in the eyes, hands, and brain of the examiner. Careful inspection, knowledge, discernment, and experience are the real tools of the professional for acquiring and processing all of the available data and for correctly fitting the puzzle pieces into a picture that illustrates either health, concern with reason for reevaluation, or the need to biopsy the area in question. When reevaluation is required, no more than two weeks should elapse between the initial examination and follow-up, as time is of the essence in proceeding to treatment should the suspicious area indeed be cancerous.

Responsibility to the patient does not end with an abnormal screening result. The dental professional should have a plan in place to either biopsy or refer. The dental professional should biopsy only if he or she is well-experienced in the removal of suspected cancerous lesions. Otherwise, the patient should be referred to an oral/maxillofacial surgeon, periodontist, otolaryngologist, or head and neck surgeon who is comfortable with and experienced in the safe and effective biopsy of a potentially cancerous area. It is most often the case that only one opportunity to obtain a diagnostic tissue sample exists, so the skills of the doctor performing the biopsy should be without question. Every effort should be made to ensure that the patient is seen promptly for biopsy and that the pathology results are returned and shared with the patient expeditiously. Delay can be detrimental to the survival of a patient with oral or oropharyngeal cancer.

Should a screening result from your office lead to a diagnosis of oral or oropharyngeal cancer, be prepared to counsel and educate your patient about what to expect in his or her cancer journey. Learn about and be prepared to meet the unique dental and oral health needs of patients with oral and head and neck cancers, and become equipped to continue care for your patients throughout their treatment and into survivorship. For all of the destruction and hardship that cancer brings, it can form unbreakable bonds, between doctor and patient and between dentist and physician.

Don’t be afraid to reach out to your counterparts in the medical community and bridge the gap between medicine and dentistry in your area. Form alliances with head and neck surgeons, radiation oncologists, medical oncologists, and oncology nurses. Let them know about your skills and the services and technology available in your office that place you on the front line of this war on oral cancer. Take time to understand your medical colleagues’ role in treating the disease and become familiar with the technology they are using to save lives and diminish the long-term effects of oral cancer treatment. We are, after all, fighting the same war, and we’re all on the same side. It is all of us against oral and oropharyngeal cancer, with the needs and health of that one patient we’re fighting for leading us in the battle.

About the author:
Dennis M. Abbott, DDS, is the founder and CEO of Dental Oncology Professionals, an oral medicine-based practice dedicated to meeting the unique dental and oral health needs of patients battling cancer. In addition to private practice, he is a member of the dental oncology medical staff at Charles A. Sammons Cancer Center at Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas. Dr. Abbott is also the founder of the American Academy of Dental Oncology and serves as a consultant to the national American Cancer Society in the development of oral monitoring guidelines for post-treatment cancer survivors. Dr. Abbott lectures internationally on the topics of dental oncology and oral cancer.

DNA shed from head and neck tumors detected in blood and saliva

Source: www.medicalexpress.com
Author: Wang et al., Science Translational Medicine (2015)
 
558ae7a9b6d9b-2
Schematic showing the shedding of tumor DNA from head and neck cancers into the saliva or plasma. Tumors from various anatomic locations shed DNA fragments containing tumor-specific mutations and human papillomavirus DNA into the saliva or the circulation. The detectability of tumor DNA in the saliva varied with anatomic location of the tumor, with the highest sensitivity for oral cavity cancers. The detectability in plasma varied much less in regard to the tumor’s anatomic location. Credit: Wang et al., Science Translational Medicine (2015)

 

On the hunt for better cancer screening tests, Johns Hopkins scientists led a proof of principle study that successfully identified tumor DNA shed into the blood and saliva of 93 patients with head and neck cancer. A report on the findings is published in the June 24 issue of Science Translational Medicine.

“We have shown that tumor DNA in the blood or saliva can successfully be measured for these cancers,” says Nishant Agrawal, M.D., associate professor of otolaryngology—head and neck surgery—and of oncology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. “In our study, testing saliva seemed to be the best way to detect cancers in the oral cavity, and blood tests appeared to find more cancers in the larynx, hypopharynx and oropharynx. However, combining blood and saliva tests may offer the best chance of finding cancer in any of those regions.”

Agrawal explains that inborn genetic predispositions for most head and neck cancers are rare, but other mutations that don’t generally occur in normal cells have long been considered good targets for screening tests.

In the case of head and neck cancers associated with HPV—tumors on the rise among Americans—Agrawal and his colleagues searched patients’ blood and saliva samples for certain tumor-promoting, HPV-related DNA. For non-HPV-related cancers, which account for the worldwide majority of head and neck tumors, they looked for mutations in cancer-related genes that included TP53, PIK3CA, CDKN2A, FBXW7, HRAS and NRAS.

The major risk factors for head and neck cancers are alcohol, tobacco—including chewing tobacco—and HPV infection.

For the study, 93 patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent head and neck cancer gave saliva samples, and 47 of them also donated blood samples before their treatment at The Johns Hopkins Hospital and MD Anderson Cancer Center in Texas. The scientists detected tumor DNA in the saliva of 71 of the 93 patients (76 percent) and in the blood of 41 of the 47 (87 percent). In the 47 who gave blood and saliva samples, scientists were able to detect tumor DNA in at least one of the body fluids in 45 of them (96 percent).

When the scientists analyzed how well their tumor DNA tests found cancers in certain regions of the head and neck, they found that saliva tests fared better than blood tests for oral cavity cancers. All 46 oral cavity cancers were correctly identified through saliva tests, compared with 16 of 34 oropharynx cancers (47 percent), seven of 10 larynx cancers (70 percent) and two of three hypopharynx cancers (67 percent).

The oral cavity refers to areas within the mouth, including the lips, front of the tongue, cheeks and gums. The oropharynx and hypopharynx are located in the back of the throat. The larynx, also in the throat, is typically known as the voice box.

“One reason that saliva tests may not have been as effective for cancer sites in the back of the throat is because we didn’t ask patients to gargle; we only asked them to rinse their mouths to provide the samples,” says Agrawal, a member of Johns Hopkins’ Kimmel Cancer Center and Ludwig Center.

Blood tests correctly identified tumor DNA more often in 20 of 22 oropharynx cancers (91 percent), six of seven larynx cancers (86 percent) and all three hypopharynx cancers. Taken together, blood and saliva tests correctly identified all oral cavity, larynx and hypopharynx cancers and 20 of 22 oropharynx cancers (91 percent).

Agrawal says the sensitivity of the tests overall depended on the cancer site, stage and HPV status, ranging between 86 to 100 percent. He also reports that saliva tests performed better for early-stage cancers, finding all 20 cancers, compared with blood tests that correctly identified seven of 10. He and his team found the opposite was true for late-stage cancers: Blood tests found more late-stage cancers (34 of 37), compared with saliva tests (51 of 73). Blood tests also correctly identified HPV-related tumors, occurring in 30 of the 93 patients, more often than saliva tests, probably because HPV-related tumors tend to occur in the back of the throat, which may not have been reached with the saliva rinse.

“Our ultimate goal is to develop better screening tests to find head and neck cancers among the general population and improve how we monitor patients with cancer for recurrence of their disease,” says Bert Vogelstein, M.D., the Clayton Professor of Oncology at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, co-director of the Ludwig Center at Johns Hopkins and a co-author of the study.

The scientists caution that further study of their tumor DNA detection method in larger groups of patients and healthy people is needed before clinical effectiveness can be determined, and that refinements also may be needed in methods of collecting saliva and the range of cancer-specific genes in the gene test panel.

In addition, Agrawal says: “We don’t yet have definitive data on false positive rates, and won’t until there are more studies of the tests in healthy people.” However, he notes, the formulas used to analyze their blood and saliva tests are designed to weed out questionable results.

False results in gene tests arise when DNA are copied many times, sequenced and analyzed. The scientists used a method they developed and tested previously in cervical fluid to find ovarian and cervical cancers. Specifically, they attach a kind of genetic bar code—a random set of 14 DNA base pairs—to trace each copied DNA fragment to its original one. DNA copies lacking the bar code are suspected to be an artifact of the process, and any mutation found in it is disregarded.

Agrawal says that tests like the one his team used, if used commercially, likely would cost several hundred dollars, and “our long-term goal is to create a test that costs less than $50 so it can be administered by physicians or dentists.”

To screen for head and neck cancers, which occur in more than 50,000 people in the U.S. each year, doctors conduct physical examinations. Biopsies are taken of suspicious-looking lesions, but “this method is not ideal, as evidenced by the fact that most head and neck cancers are rarely found at very early stages, when they are most curable,” says Agrawal.

*This news story was resourced by the Oral Cancer Foundation, and vetted for appropriateness and accuracy.