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Don’t start, be smart: Local, Reno Rodeo competitor advocates being tobacco-free

Source: mynews4.com
Author: Kenzie Bales
Date: June 13th, 2017

RENO, Nev. (News 4 & Fox 11) — As a country phenomenon, Garth Brooks once said, “It’s bulls and blood, it’s dust and mud, it’s the roar of a Sunday crowd. It’s the white in his knuckles, the gold in the buckle, he’ll win the next go ’round. It’s boots and chaps, it’s cowboy hats, it’s spurs and latigo, it’s the ropes and the reins, and the joy and the pain and they call the thing rodeo.”

2017 Reno Rodeo competitor Cody Z Kiser has been riding and roping for as long as he can remember.

Born and raised to Carrie and P.D. Kiser in Carson City, Nevada, Cody started riding bulls as a Dayton High School student.

A horrific injury would set Kiser back, but by no means did it keep him from chasing his dreams.

Kiser says a bull stepped on his face and crushed all the bones in the left side of his face. After recovering, Kiser transitioned from bull riding to bareback bucking horses and hasn’t looked back since.

If traveling to rodeos all the time wasn’t enough to keep someone completely preoccupied, Cody competed while pursuing a Bachelor’s Degree in Civil Engineering at the University of Nevada, Reno.

After testing the waters in the engineering field for awhile, Kiser decided it was time to chase his lifelong dream and give rodeo his full attention.

During his endeavors as a cowboy, Cody was fortunate enough to establish a partnership with the Oral Cancer Foundation.

Everyone knows it is terrible for you, yet they still do it.

He says that being tobacco-free is something he advocates for because he understands the huge health risks that come along with it.

I have seen the impact it can have on a human’s health and it is something that I want no part of, and if I can help others from starting it, then I am happy.

Kiser says he is always willing to answer questions pre-existing tobacco users may have, but by no means is he trying to tell people how to live their life.

A big goal of his: to show people that you don’t have to smoke or chew to be a real cowboy or to be successful in the sport you love. Primarily focusing on kids, Kiser hopes to spread the movement to younger generations who haven’t picked up the bad habit yet.

The sport is hard enough on your body, no sense in making in harder on yourself.

Kiser says he strays away from just throwing facts and statistics at people, but rather making a positive, memorable impact and associating with people without the use of tobacco.

After partnering with the OCF three years ago, the cowboy says that he has had nothing but positive feedback and calls himself the “luckiest guy in the world.”

If you are interested in watching Cody Kiser compete in the 2017 Reno Rodeo, you can catch him on Father’s Day, Sunday, June 18 (making his dad, a former bucking horse rider proud) or Monday, June 19.

June, 2017|Oral Cancer News|

HPV Vaccination Linked to Decreased Oral HPV Infections

Author: NCI Staff
Date: June 5th, 2017
Source: www.cancer.org

New study results suggest that vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) may sharply reduce oral HPV infections that are a major risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer, a type of head and neck cancer.

The study of more than 2,600 young adults in the United States found that the prevalence of oral infection with four HPV types, including two high-risk, or cancer-causing, types, was 88% lower in those who reported receiving at least one dose of an HPV vaccine than in those who said they were not vaccinated.

About 70% of oropharyngeal cancers are caused by high-risk HPV infection, and the incidence of HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer has been increasing in the United States in recent decades. In the United States, more than half of oropharyngeal cancers are linked to a single high-risk HPV type, HPV 16, which is one of the types covered by Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HPV vaccines.

“In an unvaccinated population, we would estimate that about a million young adults would have an oral HPV infection by one of these vaccine HPV types. If they had all been vaccinated, we could have prevented almost 900,000 of those infections,” said senior study author Maura Gillison, M.D., Ph.D., of the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

Dr. Gillison presented the new findings at a May 17 press briefing ahead of the 2017 annual American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) meeting, held June 2–6 in Chicago.

A Rapidly Rising Cancer

Oropharyngeal cancer “is the fastest-rising cancer among young white men in the United States,” said Dr. Gillison, who was at Ohio State University when she conducted the study.

“The HPV types that cause oropharyngeal cancers are primarily transmitted through sexual contact,” explained lead study author Anil Chaturvedi, Ph.D., of NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics. The increased incidence of oropharyngeal cancers in white men has been linked to changes in sexual behaviors from the 1950s through the 1970s, he said. The exact reasons for the greater increase in oropharynx cancer incidence in men versus women are still unclear, Dr. Chaturvedi added.

Clinical trials have shown that FDA-approved HPV vaccines can prevent anogenital HPV infections and precancerous lesions that lead to HPV-associated cancers, including cervical and anal cancer. However, Dr. Gillison said, the potential impact of current HPV vaccines on oral HPV infections that lead to cancer has not yet been rigorously tested in clinical trials, and thus the vaccines are not specifically approved for preventing cancers of the oropharynx.

From 2006 through 2014, most HPV-vaccinated individuals in the United States received Gardasil®, an HPV vaccine that protects against infection with HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18. In January 2015, FDA approved an updated HPV vaccine, Gardasil 9®, that protects against five additional HPV types.

Looking for a Link

To investigate the relationship between HPV vaccination and oral HPV infection, the researchers analyzed data for 2,627 young adults who participated in NHANES, a national survey that assesses the health of a representative slice of the US population.

Drs. Gillison, Chaturvedi, and their colleagues restricted their analysis to NHANES data from 2011 to 2014, focusing on 18- to 33-year-old men and women “because they were the first group [in the United States] to receive the vaccine,” Dr. Gillison said.

In the United States, routine vaccination against HPV, which causes nearly all cervical cancers, has been recommended since mid-2006 for 11- to 12-year-old girls and for females up to age 26 who have not previously been vaccinated. HPV vaccination has been recommended for males ages 9–26 since 2009.

The researchers analyzed mouth rinse samples (containing oral cells) from all study participants for the presence of 37 HPV types, including types 6, 11, 16, and 18, which are covered by Gardasil, Dr. Gillison said.

The prevalence of oral infections with these four HPV types was 1.61% in unvaccinated young adults versus 0.11% in vaccinated young adults—an 88% reduction in HPV prevalence with vaccination. Among men, the prevalence of oral infection with the four HPV types was 2.1% in unvaccinated individuals and 0.0% in vaccinated individuals.

By contrast, the prevalence of oral infection with 33 HPV types not covered by the vaccine was 4.0% in vaccinated groups and 4.7% in non-vaccinated groups, the researchers found, a difference that was not considered to be statistically meaningful.

Vaccination rates were low overall, with only 29.2% of women and 6.9% of men in the study population reporting having received at least one dose of an HPV vaccine before age 26.

Prevention Potential

Although the self-reported vaccination rates in this study were low, Dr. Gillison said, “there is considerable optimism because more recent data indicate that [roughly] 60% of girls and 50% of boys under age 18 have received more than one HPV vaccine dose.”

“HPV vaccines are already strongly recommended for cancer prevention,” Dr. Gillison continued. “Parents who choose to have their children vaccinated against HPV should realize that the vaccine may provide additional benefits, such as preventing oral HPV infections linked to oral cancers.”

However, she and Dr. Chaturvedi noted, only a randomized clinical trial that follows people over time could definitively show a cause and effect relationship between HPV vaccination and a lasting reduction of high-risk oral HPV infections, which experts agree is a more meaningful indicator of vaccine effectiveness.

In July 2013, NCI researchers and their collaborators reported findings from the NCI-sponsored HPV Vaccine Trial in Costa Rica that suggested that HPV vaccination can reduce oral HPV infections in women.

“Our study builds on those results by showing a reduction in oral HPV prevalence in vaccinated men, the group that bears the greatest burden of HPV-associated oropharynx cancers,” Dr. Chaturvedi said.

June, 2017|Oral Cancer News|

Study reveals high environmental cost of tobacco

Source: www.cnn.com
Date: May 31st, 2017
Author: Jacopo Prisco

Details of the environmental cost of tobacco are revealed in a study released Wednesday by the World Health Organization, adding to the well-known costs to global health, which translate to a yearly loss of $1.4 trillion in health-care expenses and lost productivity.

From crop to pack, tobacco commands an intensive use of resources and forces the release of harmful chemicals in the soil and waterways, as well as significant amounts of greenhouse gases. Its leftovers linger, as tobacco litter is the biggest component of litter worldwide.

“Tobacco not only produces lung cancer in people, but it is a cancer to the lungs of the Earth,” said Dr. Armando Peruga, who previously coordinated the WHO Tobacco Free Initiative and now works as a consultant. He reviewed the new report for the WHO.

Commercial tobacco farming is a worldwide industry that involves 124 countries and occupies 4.3 million hectares of agricultural land. About 90% of it takes place in low-income countries, with China, Brazil and India as the largest producers.

Because tobacco is often a monocrop — grown without being rotated with other crops — the plants and the soil are weak in natural defenses and require larger amounts of chemicals for growth and protection from pests.

“Tobacco also takes away a lot of nutrients from the soil and requires massive amounts of fertilizer, a process that leads to degradation of the land and desertification, with negative consequences for biodiversity and wildlife,” Peruga said.

The use of chemicals directly impacts the health of farmers, 60% to 70% of whom are women. This is especially prominent in low- and middle-income countries, where some compounds that are banned in high-income countries are still used.

300 cigarettes = one tree

Farming also uses a surprisingly large amount of wood, rendering tobacco a driver of deforestation, one of the leading causes of climate change.

About 11.4 million metric tonnes of wood are utilized annually for curing: the drying of the tobacco leaf, which is achieved through various methods, including wood fires. That’s the equivalent of one tree for every 300 cigarettes, or 1.5 cartons.

This adds to the impact of plantations on forest land, which the study describes as a significant cause for concern, citing “evidence of substantial, and largely irreversible, losses of trees and other plant species cause by tobacco farming.”

Deadly gases

In 2012, 967 million daily smokers consumed approximately 6.25 trillion cigarettes worldwide, the WHO estimates.”That means about 6,000 metric tones of formaldehyde and 47,000 metric tonnes of nicotine are released into the environment,” Peruga said.

Tobacco smoke contains about 4,000 chemicals, at least 250 of which are known to be harmful. It also contains climate-warming carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides. “The combination of greenhouse gases from combustion is equivalent to about 1.5 million vehicles driven annually,” Peruga said.

Secondhand smoke is particularly deadly: It contains twice as much nicotine and 147 times more ammonia than so-called mainstream smoke, leading to close to 1 million deaths annually, 28% of them children.

Some of these pollutants remain in the environment (and our homes) as “third-hand smoke,” accumulating in dust and surfaces indoors, and in landfills. Some, like nicotine, even resist treatment, polluting waterways and potentially contaminating water used for consumption, the study notes.

Non-biodegradable litter

Tobacco litter is the most common type of litter by count worldwide.

“We calculate that two-thirds of every cigarette ends up as litter,” Peruga said.

The litter is laced with chemicals including arsenic and heavy metals, which can end up in the water supply. Cigarette butts are not biodegradable, and tossing one on the ground is still considered a socially acceptable form of littering in many countries.

The WHO estimates that between 340 million and 680 million kilograms of tobacco waste are thrown away every year, and cigarette butts account for 30% to 40% of all items collected in coastal and urban clean-ups.

“In addition to that, there are 2 million tons of paper, foil, ink and glue used for the packaging,” Peruga said.

A way forward?

Even though smoking is declining globally, it is increasing in some regions, such as the eastern Mediterranean and Africa. China is a world leader both in production (44%) and consumption, with 10 times more cigarettes smoked than in any other nation.

Every stage of the production of a cigarette has negative effects on the environment and the people who are involved in manufacturing tobacco products, even before the health of smokers and non-smokers is affected.

Although governments worldwide already collect $270 billion in tobacco taxes a year, the WHO suggests that increasing tax and prices is an effective way of reducing consumption and help development priorities in each country, adding that by collecting 80 cents more per pack, the global tax revenue could be doubled.

“Tobacco threatens us all,” WHO Director-General Margaret Chan said in a note. “It exacerbates poverty, reduces economic productivity, contributes to poor household food choices, and pollutes indoor air.”

May, 2017|Oral Cancer News|

Recommendation Against Routine Thyroid Cancer Screening Retained

Author: Shreeya Nanda
Date: 05/23/2017
Source: https://www.medwirenews.com

The decision is based on a systematic review of 67 studies, also reported in JAMA, evaluating various aspects of screening, such as the benefits and harms of screening asymptomatic individuals and of treating screen-detected cancers, as well as the diagnostic accuracy of screening modalities.

Although there were no trials directly comparing the benefits of early versus late or delayed treatment, two separate observational studies compared the outcome of treatment versus no surgery or surveillance. However, as neither study accounted for confounding variables, robust conclusions could not be drawn, say Jennifer Lin, from Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research in Portland, Oregon, USA, and colleagues.

By contrast, they identified 52 studies, including 335,091 patients, that provided information on the harms of treating screen-detected thyroid cancers. A meta-analysis of the data showed that the incidence of permanent hypoparathyroidism varied between 2% and 6%, while the rate of permanent vocal cord paralysis ranged from around 1% to 2%.

Among patients who received radioactive iodine therapy, the excess absolute risk for secondary cancers ranged from 11.9 to 13.3 per 10,000 person–years. And the incidence of dry mouth ranged widely, from approximately 2% to 35%.

The USPSTF commissioned the systematic review due to the rising incidence of thyroid cancers against a background of stable mortality, which is suggestive of overdiagnosis. And in view of the results, the task force concluded with “moderate certainty” that the harms outweigh the benefits of screening, upholding the “D” recommendation.

The USPSTF emphasizes, however, that this recommendation pertains only to the general asymptomatic adult population, and not to individuals who present with throat symptoms, lumps or swelling, or those at high risk for thyroid cancer.

Editorialists Louise Davies (Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, White River Junction, Vermont, USA) and Luc Morris (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA) welcome the decision, noting that “[e]pidemiologic data from around the world demonstrate that finding more cases of cancer, as has occurred over the past approximately 15 years, has not made death from the disease less likely.”

They write in JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery: “While suggestions to ‘check your neck’ are well intentioned, the USPSTF recommendation indicates that these practices should not be encouraged or endorsed.”

Other commentators are more circumspect. Julie Ann Sosa (Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA) and co-authors point out in JAMA Surgery that both the incidence and mortality rates of advanced-stage papillary thyroid cancer have risen over the years, as has the overall thyroid cancer incidence-based mortality.

These findings “[challenge] the prevailing hypothesis that overdiagnosis is the sole culprit for the changing epidemiology,” they write.

Sosa and colleagues continue: “If the explanation for the rise in thyroid cancer is, indeed, not just overdiagnosis, and if mortality from thyroid cancer is also increasing, then enthusiasm for this (non)screening recommendation should be more muted.”

Writing in an accompanying piece in JAMA, Anne Cappola (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA) notes that “[t]he rationale for the recommendation against screening is compelling,” but she does not want the conversation about screening to stop.

Like Sosa et al, Cappola does not think that over diagnosis explains all and she believes that “additional research into possible environmental etiologies is needed, particularly to inform prevention efforts.”

May, 2017|Oral Cancer News|

Is the HPV vaccine safe?

Author: Linda Carroll
Date: May 15, 2017
Source: http://www.today.com/health/hpv-vaccine-who-should-get-it-t110710

There is so much confusion around the human papillomavirus, or HPV: what it is, what causes it, how you can prevent it, and most commonly, whether or not the HPV vaccine is actually safe.

Here are the basics: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HPV is a group of more than 150 related viruses. It’s transmitted through intimate skin-to-skin contact, and you can get it by having vaginal, anal or oral sex with someone else who has the virus. It is very common: A recent report found 42 percent of Americans are infected with HPV.

That may sound alarming, but in most cases, HPV goes away without any signs and doesn’t lead to health issues. When HPV doesn’t go away, it can lead to genital warts and cancer. It’s important to note 25 percent of men and 20 percent of women between the ages of 18 and 59 are infected with the cancer-causing strains.

So what can you do? The best way to prevent these harmful types of HPV is to get the HPV vaccine, which was first recommended in 2006, but people are still wary of it.

“This is the only vaccine we have that prevents cancer,” said Dr. Donnica Moore, president of the Sapphire Women’s Health Group. The HPV vaccine protects against strains of the virus that have been shown to cause cervical, vaginal, vulvar and penile cancer, as well as certain cancers of the mouth and throat.

The most common cancer in women related to HPV is cervical cancer. In men, the head and neck are most commonly involved. A high-profile reminder of this hazard was Michael Douglas’s HPV-related throat cancer, which was found and treated in 2010.

The HPV vaccine is safe and effective: According to the CDC, the vaccine provides close to 100 percent protection against cervical pre-cancers and genital warts.

Currently, the vaccine is recommended for girls and young women between the ages of 9 and 26, said Dr. Melissa Simon, vice chair of clinical research in the department of obstetrics and gynecology at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine. It’s also recommended for boys and men between 9 and 21, she added.

For children between 9 and 14, the recommendation is two doses, six months apart. If started later than 14, the recommendation is three doses.

Many parents are worried that vaccinating kids against a sexually transmitted disease will make them promiscuous, but experts say that’s not true.

“It doesn’t make them want more sex,” Simon said. If that concern is what’s holding you back, just tell your children they’re getting the vaccine to prevent cancer, Moore said.

While kids are the most likely to develop new infections with HPV, increasing numbers of women in their 50s are testing positive for it, Moore said. That’s most likely tied to new sexual activity after divorce, she explained.

For women older than 26 and men older than 21, the best way to prevent infection is with barrier protection, such as condoms.

If you’re older than 26 and want to be vaccinated, you can talk to your doctor about it. “Doctors can prescribe any FDA-approved drug or vaccine for anything they determine is appropriate, however you may have to pay for it,” Moore said. That’s because the labeling says it’s for women under age 27 and men under age 22, and many insurance companies won’t pay for a treatment that is not listed.

You’ll have a better case with the insurance company if you haven’t had sex yet, Moore said. The current age restrictions are in place partly because younger people are less likely to have been exposed to the virus. There’s no point in getting vaccinated if you’ve already been exposed, but your doctor can tell you if it’s beneficial for you get the vaccine.

May, 2017|Oral Cancer News|

‘Happy Days’ star Erin Moran’s Husband Reveals Tragic Details about Cancer

Author: Marah Alindogan
Source: www.aol.com
Date: Apr 25th 2017

Erin Moran’s husband, Steve Fleischmann, revealed heartbreaking details about the months leading up to her death in a Facebook post on Tuesday.

New evidence from the Harrison County Sheriff’s Office on Monday suggested that the actress likely died due to complications from stage 4 cancer. The open letter, which was posted on Scott Baio’s official Facebook page, confirmed the report.

“Erin and I met 4/22/1992 and parted ways 4/22/2017,” her husband began the letter.

He recalled that Erin “woke up and had about a dime size blood stain on her pillowcase” right after they got back from a trip to celebrate their wedding anniversary in November of last year. After a couple of days, they kept on finding more blood.

“I get a flashlight and say let me look. It was not her tongue it was her tonsil on the left side. I thought it was tonsillitis,” wrote Fleischmann.

After getting a biopsy, doctors confirmed she had squamous cell carcinoma — a common form of cancer. Shortly after, she started radiation and chemo — five days a week on radiation and chemo only on Thursdays.

However, Erin’s condition slowly deteriorated: “It got so bad so fast. By the middle of February, Erin could no longer speak or eat or drink.”

Despite her poor health, the actress remained in good spirits.

“She was still happy, she was active, she texted people on her phone all day,” Steve added.

The day before her death, April 21, she had trouble breathing. And the next day, Steve claimed she wasn’t 100 percent.

“I laid down next to her held her right hand in my left. I feel asleep woke up about a hour later still holding her hand and she was gone, she was just gone …”

Steve revealed Norton Cancer Institute, where his wife received treatments, “never said how bad it was.”

“The coroner told me it was really really bad. It had spread to her spleen, she had alot of fluid in her lungs and part of her brain was infected,” he shared. “The coroner said even if she was in the hospital being pumped full of antibiotics she still would not of made it. He said it was the best that she was with me and went in her sleep.”

April, 2017|Oral Cancer News|

Overwhelming support from GPs & dentists for boys to receive the HPV vaccination

Date: 4/24/2017
Source: http://www.hpvaction.org

  • 97% of dentists and 94% of GPs would have their own sons vaccinated against the Human Papillomavirus (HPV), in a new survey published ahead of World Immunisation Week 24th-28th April.
  • 97% of dentists and 94% of GPs believe that the national HPV vaccination programme should cover both boys and girls.

95% of GPs and dentists together said if they had a son they would want him to receive the HPV vaccination. The findings come as the Government’s vaccination advisory committee (JCVI) moves towards a decision on whether boys should be given the HPV vaccination.

BRITISH MEDICAL ASSOCIATION

Dr Andrew Green, a member of the BMA’s General Practitioners Committee (GPC), said: “If we want to see an end to some of the most aggressive and hard to treat cancers such as throat, head, neck and anal cancer, boys as well as girls must be given the HPV vaccination. It is ridiculous that people are still dying from these cancers when their life could have easily been saved by a simple injection.”

BRITISH DENTAL ASSOCIATION

Mick Armstrong, Chair of the BDA’s Principal Executive Committee, said: “HPV is the leading cause of oro-pharyngeal cancers and men are just as likely to develop it as women so where is the logic – or fairness – in targeting protection to one section of the population? It is morally indefensible to allow people to contract cancer when prevention – the new NHS mantra – could be so cheap and easy. Cancers affecting the mouth and throat have a huge impact on the quality of people’s lives, so it’s frustrating for dentists, who are often the first to detect them, knowing how easily they could have been prevented.”

LETTER TO JEREMY HUNT

Parliamentarians from all parties have signed an open letter to the Health Secretary, Jeremy Hunt MP, urging him to ensure that the UK doesn’t miss this opportunity to eradicate some of the fastest rising cancers in the developed world.
Up to 80% of sexually active people will be infected by HPV at some point in their lives. 5% of all cancers are caused by HPV and some of these, notably oral cancers, are now rising sharply in incidence. HPV-related cancers such as anal cancer are also among the hardest to diagnose and treat.

THE COST-EFFECTIVE ARGUMENT

Many doctors, dentists, scientists and professional and patient organisations who support the vaccination of both sexes are concerned that the JCVI will reject universal coverage on the grounds of cost despite the vaccination’s ability to protect against 5% of all cancers and the huge cost of treating HPV-related cancers and other diseases caused by HPV (genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis).

It is estimated that vaccinating boys would cost £20-22m a year at most – a figure that is dwarfed by the cost of treating HPV-related cancers and warts. An estimated £57.1 million is spent treating head and neck cancer (in England), almost £7 million on treating men with anal cancer and an estimated £58.44 million a year treating anogenital warts.

Newly-published research by Favato G, Easton T, Vecchiato R, Noikokyris E. “Ecological validity of cost-effectiveness models of universal HPV vaccination: a systematic literature review” casts doubt on hitherto published cost-effectiveness modelling and highlights the uncertainties in the process.

The authors comment: “Our findings indicate that the selective immunisation of prepubertal girls is likely to fail to achieve the expected level of herd immunity at population level. A relatively small (15–20%) overestimation of QALY-gained with selective immunisation programmes could induce a significant error in the estimate of the cost-effectiveness of universal immunisation, making the option of vaccinating boys [wrongly appear to be] cost-ineffective.”

WHY GIRLS NOT BOYS?

As well as cost, the main argument deployed against vaccinating boys is that the girls’ programme indirectly protects boys. However, this has been widely dismissed because it fails to take into account men who have sex with unvaccinated women (from the UK and other countries) or men who have sex with men.

LEADING CAMPAIGNER 

One of the key voices in the campaign, Tristan Almada, HPV & Anal Cancer Foundation, said: “The UK government cannot ignore the overwhelming support from GPs, dentists and MPs who want boys to have the HPV vaccination. With every year that passes, almost 400,000 more boys go unvaccinated and are therefore at
risk of developing a HPV-related cancer later in life. The government must roll out gender-neutral vaccination nationally as soon as possible.”

THE GLOBAL VIEW

Australia, USA, Brazil, Bermuda, New Zealand, Austria, Israel, Italy, Switzerland and Canada all recommend that boys are vaccinated as well as girls.

HPV ACTION

Peter Baker, HPV Action Campaign Director, said: “HPV affects men and women equally and both sexes therefore deserve equal protection though a national vaccination programme. It is now time for the Government’s vaccination advisory committee to look up from its financial spreadsheets and act to end the suffering of those men and women affected by easily-preventable diseases caused by HPV.”

The survey was carried out by HPV Action with the support of the HPV and Anal Cancer Foundation and its other members. HPV Action is asking people, especially the parents of boys, to sign an online petition demanding gender-neutral vaccination: and will be calling on all political parties to commit themselves to gender-neutral HPV vaccination during the forthcoming General Election campaign.

April, 2017|Oral Cancer News|

Close to Half of American Adults Infected With HPV, Survey Finds

Source: www.nytimes.com
Author: Nicholas Bakalar
Date: 04/06/2017

More than 42 percent of Americans between the ages of 18 and 59 are infected with genital human papillomavirus, according to the first survey to look at the prevalence of the virus in the adult population.

The report, published on Thursday by the National Center for Health Statistics, also found that certain high-risk strains of the virus infected 25.1 percent of men and 20.4 percent of women. These strains account for approximately 31,000 cases of cancer each year, other studies have shown.

Two vaccines are effective in preventing sexually transmitted HPV infection, and researchers said the new data lend urgency to the drive to have adolescents vaccinated.

“If we can get 11- and 12-year-olds to get the vaccine, we’ll make some progress,” said Geraldine McQuillan, an epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and lead author of the new report.

“You need to give it before kids become sexually active, before they get infected,” Dr. McQuillan said. “By the time they’re in their mid-20s, people are infected and it’s too late. This is a vaccine against cancer — that’s the message.”

She and her colleagues also found that 7.3 percent of Americans ages 18 to 69 were infected orally with vHPV, and 4 percent were infected with the high-risk strains that can cause cancers of the mouth and pharynx.

HPV is a ubiquitous virus, the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. About 40 strains of the virus are sexually transmitted, and virtually all sexually active individuals are exposed to it by their early 20s.

The virus usually is spread through direct contact with infected genital skin or mucuous membranes during intercourse or oral sex. Over 90 percent of HPV infections are cleared by the body within two years. The figures released today were a snapshot of the prevalence of active oral HPV infection from 2011 through 2014, and active genital infection in 2013 and 2014.

Sometimes, the virus persists in the body. Chronic infections with certain strains can lead to genital warts and cancers of the cervix, vagina, penis, anus and throat. Two viral strains, HPV-16 and -18, cause almost all cervical cancers.

“One of the most striking things that we really want people to know is that high-risk HPV is common — common in the general population,” Dr. McQuillan said.

Get the best of Well, with the latest on health, fitness and nutrition, plus exclusive commentary by Tara Parker-Pope, delivered to your inbox every week.

While the C.D.C. recommends routine screening for cervical cancer for all women ages 21 to 65, adults are not routinely screened for HPV infection itself. Indeed, there is no HPV test for men at all. (A test for women is sometimes used in conjunction with a Pap screen for cervical cancer.)

There were significant differences in rates of high-risk genital HPV infection by race and ethnicity, Dr. McQuillan and her colleagues found.

The highest rate, 33.7 percent, was found among non-Hispanic blacks; the lowest, 11.9 percent, among Asians. The prevalence of genital HPV infection was 21.6 percent among whites and 21.7 percent among Hispanics.

Men generally have somewhat higher rates than women, but among Asian and Hispanic men, the infections are not significantly more common. The reasons for these variations are not known.

April, 2017|Oral Cancer News|

Unmasked, Cancer Survivors Face The Symbol Of Their Torture

Source: www.npr.org
Date: 09/28/2014
Author: Emily Siner

 

Every 15 minutes, for 10 hours a day, another patient walks into the radiation room at Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center in Nashville. Each picks up a plastic mesh mask, walks to a machine, and lies down on the table underneath.

Nurses fit the mask over the patient’s face and shoulders. And then they snap it down.

“It was awful,” says Barbara Blades, who was diagnosed with cancer in her lymph nodes and tongue nine years ago. “It was awful to have your head bolted to a table. Not being able to move. Not being able to move your head.”

“I can remember lying there, thinking that I’m glad I’m not claustrophobic,” says Oscar Simmons, who had cancer in his tonsils.

“I sort of fibbed to myself,” says Bob Mead, who was diagnosed with salivary gland cancer in 2011. “I thought, if I had to, I could sit up and pull the mask off.”

Mead later realized he couldn’t have pulled up his mask. It’s designed to restrain his head so that the radiation targets the exact same spots — down to the millimeter — across several weeks.

The mask is made out of a kind of white plastic mesh that forms to a patient’s face. It’s see-through, but it looks almost human, like a ghostly person frozen in place.

Other survivors, like Steve Travis, who had tumors on his throat and neck and went through several weeks of radiation, say it felt comforting under the mask.

But when he finished treatment, Travis says, just thinking about the mask made him angry.

“Because it sort of represented everything that had happened for the last four months,” he says. “So I destroyed it.”

Cancer patient Troy Creasey lies under a radiation machine at Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center. Radiation therapists snap the mask to the table to keep his head in place.

Emily Siner /NPR

Travis took it out to a family farm in West Tennessee and set it up next to a tree. He shot at it with two magazines from a .45 automatic — and then, for good measure, he burned it.

“I kept it for the longest time, and it just sat there,” says Barbara Blades, the woman with tongue cancer. “I couldn’t bring it myself to throw it away, because I had radiation five days a week for seven weeks. It was a part of me for that amount of time.”

Blades ended up keeping the radiation mask in her garage. She finally threw it out after it was damaged during a flood four years ago.

But Bob Mead, who had salivary gland cancer, held onto his mask with a sense of pride.

“It’s shaped like me. It fits me,” Mead says. “It’s like a favorite pair of jeans. People might not think of a mask that fondly, but there’s a familiarity to it. But the mask is actually part of me, and it’s that badge of honor that I have survived what is believed to have killed my cancer.”

Oscar Simmons, who had tonsil cancer, gave it to an artist who turned the mask into a sculpture of a mountain with a landscape around it as part of a project called Courage Unmasked, which has turned dozens of masks from survivors into art.

“Its goal is to restrain, and they’re going to expand,” Simmons says. “And so, it’s a thing of contrasts, I guess.”

As for Mead’s mask — he still hasn’t decided what to do with it.

“Mine’s actually sitting on my sun porch, on my shelf,” he says.

Every once in a while, he says he’ll pick it up and put it on his face. It still fits. And that’s OK, he says, because now, he’s free to take it off.

April, 2017|Oral Cancer News|

HPV Vaccine Could Protect More People With Fewer Doses, Doctors Insist

Source: www.npr.org
Date: March 29, 2017
Author: Michelle Andrews

You’d think that a vaccine that protects people against more than a half dozen types of cancer would have patients lining up to get it. But the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, which can prevent roughly 90 percent of all cervical cancers as well as other cancers and sexually transmitted infections caused by the virus, has faced an uphill climb since its introduction more than a decade ago.

Now, with a dosing schedule that requires fewer shots of a more effective vaccine, a leading oncology group has joined other clinicians and public health advocates who are pushing hard to prevent these virus-related cancers.

Last year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended reducing the number of HPV vaccine shots from three to two for girls and boys between the ages of 9 and 14.

This month, the American Society of Clinical Oncologists also urged physicians in the U.S. and abroad to use the vaccine to help provide protection against cervical cancer.

The CDC recommendation was based, in part, on clinical trial data that showed two doses were just as effective as a three-dose regimen for this age group. (Young people older than 14 still require three shots.)

The clinical trial was conducted using Gardasil 9, a version of the vaccine approved by the Food and Drug Administration in late 2014. It protects against nine types of HPV, seven that are responsible for 90 percent of cervical cancers and two that account for 90 percent of genital warts.

In addition, the improved version of Gardasil increases protection against HPV-related cancers in the vagina, vulva, penis, anus, rectum and oropharynx, which is the tongue and tonsil area at the back of the throat.

An earlier version of the vaccine protected against four types of HPV.

From the start, clinicians have run into some parental and political roadblocks because the vaccine, which is recommended for preteens, protects against genital human papillomavirus, a virus that is transmitted through sexual contact. Many physicians are reluctant about discussing the need for the vaccine, and for many parents, the vaccine’s cancer-prevention benefits have been overshadowed by concerns about discussing sexual matters with young kids.

Yet, for maximum protection, the immunizations should be given before girls and boys become sexually active.

The focus should not have been on sexually transmitted infections, some say. “You only get one chance to make a first impression,” said Dr. H. Cody Meissner, a professor of pediatrics at Tufts University School of Medicine and a member of the American Academy of Pediatrics’ committee on infectious diseases.

“This vaccine should have been introduced as a vaccine that will prevent cancer, not sexually transmitted infections,” Meissner says.

The HPV virus is incredibly common. At any given time, nearly 80 million Americans are infected, and most people can expect to contract HPV at some point in their lives. Most never know they’ve been infected and have no symptoms. Some people develop genital warts, but the infection generally goes away on its own.

However, others may develop problems years later. There are approximately 39,000 HPV-related cancers every year in the U.S., nearly two-thirds of them in women. In addition to cervical cancer, more than 90 percent of anal cancers and 70 percent of vaginal and vulvar cancers are thought to be caused by the HPV virus. Recent studies show that about 70 percent of cancers in the back of the throat, tongue and tonsils may also be linked to HPV.

A 2015 study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute estimated that earlier versions of the HPV vaccine could reduce the number of HPV-related cancers by nearly 25,000 annually.

The new vaccine is estimated to prevent 5,000 cancer deaths annually, according to Dr. Paul Offit, professor of pediatrics and director of the Vaccine Education Center at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.

But compliance is an ongoing problem. “They’re not getting the one vaccine that protects against diseases from which they’re most likely to suffer and die,” Offit said, noting that deaths from pertussis and meningococcal disease, for which adolescents are also vaccinated at that age, are minuscule compared with HPV-related cancers.

In 2015, 87 percent of 13-year-olds were up-to-date with the Tdap vaccine that protects against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis, and 80 percent had received the meningococcal vaccine, according to the CDC. But just 30 percent of girls and 25 percent of boys at that age had received all three doses of the HPV vaccine. In contrast to other vaccines, however, the HPV vaccine is only required in a few states for secondary school students.

Public health advocates say they think the shift to a two-dose regimen could make a big difference for parents, as well as kids.

Because the second HPV shot is supposed to be given anywhere from six months to a year after the first one, “parents can fit it into a routine regimen when people go in for their 12-year-old’s regularly scheduled visit,” said Dr. Joseph Bocchini Jr., chairman of pediatrics at Louisiana State University Health in Shreveport, La. He’s also president-elect of the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases.

 

“This news story was resourced by the Oral Cancer Foundation, and vetted for appropriateness and accuracy.”

March, 2017|Oral Cancer News|